Presentation on theme: "Tuberculosis Campaign 2015 Medical Fitness Services Department – Dubai Health Authority."— Presentation transcript:
Tuberculosis Campaign 2015 Medical Fitness Services Department – Dubai Health Authority
Incidence of Tuberculosis in 2013 Estimated - 550000 children became ill with TB. -480000 people developed MDR. - 9 million people fell ill with TB -95% Deaths from Tuberculosis in low and middle income countries. -TB death rate dropped 45% between 1990 and 2013.
World TB Day 2015 Clearly, we all need to do more. On World TB Day 2015, WHO calls on governments, affected communities, civil society organizations, health-care providers, and international partners to join the drive to roll out this strategy and to reach, treat and cure all those who are ill today. 24 March 2015 - the day to change gear and speed up global efforts to end TB altogether.
S - speak on facts about T - tuberculosis to people, be O - on the move, offer help to those in need P – prevent tuberculosis in your own little way
What Is Tuberculosis Tuberculosis also called TB is an Infectious Disease caused by the organism MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS – tubercle bacilli TB is a serious disease that can be prevented and cured with the right treatment and medicine. TB can cause death if untreated.
Epidemiology/How is TB Spread TB is spread from person to person through the air via droplet nuclei M. tuberculosis may be expelled when an infectious person: – Coughs – Sneezes – Speaks – Sings Transmission occurs when another person inhales the organisms repeatedly they will become infected with tuberculosis. TB is spread easily in closed spaces over a long period of time.
TB Spread Dots in air represent droplet nuclei containing M. tuberculosis
What are the Symptoms of TB – Cough of more than 3 weeks – Pain in the chest – Coughing up phlegm sometimes with blood. – Loss of appetite – Weight loss – Feeling weak and tired – Fever – Sweating at night Persons with active TB disease may not have all the symptoms, and may be spreading their germs to others without knowing that they have TB disease.
TreatmentTreatment TB is a treatable and curable disease. Two antibiotics (isoniazid and rifampicin) every day for six months.(isoniazid and rifampicin) Two additional antibiotics (pyrazinamide and ethambutol) every day for the first two months.
How to Prevent Tuberculosis Practice Cough Etiquette: Always cover your mouth and nose (with tissue) when you cough, sneeze, or laugh. Put the used tissue in a closed bag and throw it away. Do not spit directly on the ground. Wash hands frequently Avoid Smoking, alcohol consumption Keep strong eat foods that provide good nutrition BCG vaccination to newborn babies Treat and care for all persons diagnosed with TB. Do not spend long periods of time in enclosed room with anyone who has active TB until that person has been treated and becomes non contagious.
Sites of TB Disease Tubercle bacilli usually attacks the Lungs however a number of tubercle bacilli may enter the blood stream and spread in the – brain, larynx, lymph, nodes, pleura, bone, spine, or kidneys, etc.
Who Can Catch Tuberculosis Anyone can catch TB: – People of all races – People of all nationalities – The rich and poor – The young and old
Factors That Increase Risk For TB 1.Persons who have been recently infected with TB bacteria – Close contacts of a person with infectious TB disease – Children less than 5 years of age who have a positive TB test 2.Persons with conditions that weaken the immune system – HIV / AIDS – Substance abuse; drug, alcohol, or smoking – Diabetes mellitus – Malnutrition / Low body weight
Factors That Increase Risk For TB 1. Poverty and lack of medical care. People with low income, live in remote areas may lack access to the medical care needed to diagnose and treat TB. 2.Living or working in a residential care facility. People who live or work in prisons, immigration centers, refugee camps or health care facilities / nursing homes. – The risk is higher anywhere there is overcrowding and poor ventilation.
DROPLET NUCLEI Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a large rod-shaped bacterium. The rods are 2-4 microns in length, 0.2-0.5 microns in width, and about 1 to 5 microns in diameter. When a person with infectious TB coughs or sneezes, tiny particles containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis are expelled into the air. These particles are called droplet nuclei. Droplet nuclei can remain suspended in the air for several hours, depending on the environment.
Droplet nuclei are generated During talking, coughing and sneezing: – One cough can generate 3000 droplet nuclei. – Talking for 5 minutes can generate 3000 droplet nuclei – Singing can generate 3000 droplet nuclei in one minute. – Sneezing generates the most droplet nuclei (tens – of thousands), which can spread to individuals up to 10 feet away. Direct sunlight quickly kills tubercle bacilli, but they can survive in the dark for several hours.
Outcome of Exposure to TB Disease In most individuals, disease progression does not occur at the initial exposure:
LTBI vs. TB Disease Latent TB Infection (LTBI)TB Disease (in the lungs) Inactive, contained tubercle bacilli in the body Active, multiplying tubercle bacilli in the body Tuberculin Skin Test or Mantoux Test result is usually positive Tuberculin Skin Test or Mantoux Test result usually positive Chest x-ray usually normalChest x-ray usually abnormal Sputum smears and cultures negative Sputum smears and cultures may be positive No symptomsSymptoms such as cough, fever,weight loss Not infectiousOften infectious before treatment Not a case of TBA case of TB
How is TB Detected Mantoux test Chest X-ray Sputum Smear test AFB smear positive
Contact your doctor if: you, your loved ones, or friends feel any symptoms of TB.