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1870-1890.  What is foreign policy?  Give some examples of foreign policy.  Typically, what are countries trying to achieve with their foreign policy?

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Presentation on theme: "1870-1890.  What is foreign policy?  Give some examples of foreign policy.  Typically, what are countries trying to achieve with their foreign policy?"— Presentation transcript:

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2  What is foreign policy?  Give some examples of foreign policy.  Typically, what are countries trying to achieve with their foreign policy?

3  Contain German nationalism to the boundaries of Germany created in 1871  Stabilize Europe to allow Germany to grow economically – no wars of reprisal ◦ Maintain status quo among the Great Powers ◦ Keep France and AH from attacking Germany  Prevent Germany from becoming politically/geographically surrounded ◦ Isolate France politically – NO allies ◦ Keep Russia in the German sphere of influence  Protect Germany’s new position of political dominance on the continent

4  Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)  Germany annexed Alsace and N. Lorraine ◦ Coal, iron ore, textiles  France pay indemnity 5 billion gold francs ◦ German army of occupation until paid  Intended to weaken France economically to prevent military rebuilding

5  Germany, Austria, Russia  Three countries agreed to work out political differences peacefully ◦ Not truly an alliance  Isolated France from Austria and Russia  Protected Germany’s eastern border  Kept Germany from having to choose sides btwn Austria and Russia ◦ Balkans – area of competition btwn Austria and Russia

6  Began over rebellions in Balkan provinces ◦ Bosnia-Herzegovina (1875) ◦ Serbia and Montenegro (1876)  Russia defeated Turkey ◦ Russian intervention motivated by Pan-Slavism  Treaty of San Stefano  Gave too much territory to Russia around Black Sea and straits ◦ Allowed for BIG Bulgaria under Russian influence ◦ Opposed by Britain and AH  Bismarck called for Conference in Berlin to resolve issues

7  Treaty of San Stefano nullified  Russia kept territory south of Caucasus  Serbia, Romania, Montenegro independent  Bulgaria – still part of Ottoman Empire with greater autonomy - smaller  AH – administer Bosnia-Herzegovina (still part of OE)  GB – island of Cyprus  Fr – expand to Tunisia  Russia – pulled out of Three Emperors League

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10  Germany and Austria-Hungary  Both would go to war against Russia if one was attacked by Russia  If either partner attacked by different nation, the other one would remain neutral  Bismarck wanted to secure the southern flank of Germany  Wanted insurance against Russia since Russia dropped out of the Dreikaiserbund  Influenced hand in Balkan issues

11  Tariff against Russian grain imports ◦ Profits from corn exports provided basis for Russian industrial expansion  Further alienates Russia from Germany

12  Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia  Russia feared diplomatic isolation  War with fourth Great Power – powers would remain neutral with each other  Remain neutral if one of the contracting parties wars with Turkey  Recognize each others interests in the Balkans ◦ Agree to consult each other over issues related to the Balkans  Austria conceded to future unified Bulgaria for future annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina  Russia got the straits and Black Sea closed to warships

13  Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy ◦ Italy upset over French occupation of Tunisia  Germany and Austria-Hungary assist Italy if Italy attacked by France  Italy assist Germany and AH if Germany and AH attacked by two other Great Powers  Raised Italy’s status in sphere of European politics

14  Divided the region of the Congo between Belgium and France  Congo River – area of free trade  Attempt to resolve European differences created over colonization in Africa  Established rules for creating new colonies in Africa ◦ European powers must occupy territory in order to claim territory  Created the “Scramble for Africa”

15  Bismarck initially opposed colonial development – saw “Europe as his Africa” ◦ Initially thought colonies waste of money, resources, and created unnecessary political tension  Why begin to colonize? ◦ Kolonialverein – national movement pushed for colonization ◦ Appease industrialists and free-traders – expansion of foreign markets ◦ Protect foreign markets in Africa and Pacific where German merchants already active

16  German colonies: ◦ Togoland ◦ Cameroon ◦ German East Africa ◦ German West Africa ◦ New Guinea ◦ Pacific islands

17  Two agreements signed in 1887  Maintain the borders of the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean and Balkans region ◦ Great Britain, Italy, Austria-Hungary  GB – protection for Egypt  AH and Italy – security for future interests in Balkans ◦ Brokered by Germany  Act as a stop against Russian expansion against Ottoman Empire, aggression against Bulgaria, influence in the Balkans region  Agreed to take military measures to enforce

18  Germany and Russia  Bismarck wanted to avoid Franco-Russia alliance  Germany recognized Russian influence in Bulgaria ◦ Goes against AH interest in Balkan region  Each remained neutral in a war fought by the other against a third party

19  EXCEPT:  If Germany attacked France  If Russia attacked Austria  The Reinsurance Treaty will NOT be renewed after Bismarck dismissed by Wilhelm II

20  Evaluate the effectiveness of Germany’s foreign policy under Bismarck.  Was he successful in achieving his goals?


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