Presentation on theme: "1870-1890. What is foreign policy? Give some examples of foreign policy. Typically, what are countries trying to achieve with their foreign policy?"— Presentation transcript:
What is foreign policy? Give some examples of foreign policy. Typically, what are countries trying to achieve with their foreign policy?
Contain German nationalism to the boundaries of Germany created in 1871 Stabilize Europe to allow Germany to grow economically – no wars of reprisal ◦ Maintain status quo among the Great Powers ◦ Keep France and AH from attacking Germany Prevent Germany from becoming politically/geographically surrounded ◦ Isolate France politically – NO allies ◦ Keep Russia in the German sphere of influence Protect Germany’s new position of political dominance on the continent
Treaty of Frankfurt (1871) Germany annexed Alsace and N. Lorraine ◦ Coal, iron ore, textiles France pay indemnity 5 billion gold francs ◦ German army of occupation until paid Intended to weaken France economically to prevent military rebuilding
Germany, Austria, Russia Three countries agreed to work out political differences peacefully ◦ Not truly an alliance Isolated France from Austria and Russia Protected Germany’s eastern border Kept Germany from having to choose sides btwn Austria and Russia ◦ Balkans – area of competition btwn Austria and Russia
Began over rebellions in Balkan provinces ◦ Bosnia-Herzegovina (1875) ◦ Serbia and Montenegro (1876) Russia defeated Turkey ◦ Russian intervention motivated by Pan-Slavism Treaty of San Stefano Gave too much territory to Russia around Black Sea and straits ◦ Allowed for BIG Bulgaria under Russian influence ◦ Opposed by Britain and AH Bismarck called for Conference in Berlin to resolve issues
Treaty of San Stefano nullified Russia kept territory south of Caucasus Serbia, Romania, Montenegro independent Bulgaria – still part of Ottoman Empire with greater autonomy - smaller AH – administer Bosnia-Herzegovina (still part of OE) GB – island of Cyprus Fr – expand to Tunisia Russia – pulled out of Three Emperors League
Germany and Austria-Hungary Both would go to war against Russia if one was attacked by Russia If either partner attacked by different nation, the other one would remain neutral Bismarck wanted to secure the southern flank of Germany Wanted insurance against Russia since Russia dropped out of the Dreikaiserbund Influenced hand in Balkan issues
Tariff against Russian grain imports ◦ Profits from corn exports provided basis for Russian industrial expansion Further alienates Russia from Germany
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia Russia feared diplomatic isolation War with fourth Great Power – powers would remain neutral with each other Remain neutral if one of the contracting parties wars with Turkey Recognize each others interests in the Balkans ◦ Agree to consult each other over issues related to the Balkans Austria conceded to future unified Bulgaria for future annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina Russia got the straits and Black Sea closed to warships
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy ◦ Italy upset over French occupation of Tunisia Germany and Austria-Hungary assist Italy if Italy attacked by France Italy assist Germany and AH if Germany and AH attacked by two other Great Powers Raised Italy’s status in sphere of European politics
Divided the region of the Congo between Belgium and France Congo River – area of free trade Attempt to resolve European differences created over colonization in Africa Established rules for creating new colonies in Africa ◦ European powers must occupy territory in order to claim territory Created the “Scramble for Africa”
Bismarck initially opposed colonial development – saw “Europe as his Africa” ◦ Initially thought colonies waste of money, resources, and created unnecessary political tension Why begin to colonize? ◦ Kolonialverein – national movement pushed for colonization ◦ Appease industrialists and free-traders – expansion of foreign markets ◦ Protect foreign markets in Africa and Pacific where German merchants already active
German colonies: ◦ Togoland ◦ Cameroon ◦ German East Africa ◦ German West Africa ◦ New Guinea ◦ Pacific islands
Two agreements signed in 1887 Maintain the borders of the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean and Balkans region ◦ Great Britain, Italy, Austria-Hungary GB – protection for Egypt AH and Italy – security for future interests in Balkans ◦ Brokered by Germany Act as a stop against Russian expansion against Ottoman Empire, aggression against Bulgaria, influence in the Balkans region Agreed to take military measures to enforce
Germany and Russia Bismarck wanted to avoid Franco-Russia alliance Germany recognized Russian influence in Bulgaria ◦ Goes against AH interest in Balkan region Each remained neutral in a war fought by the other against a third party
EXCEPT: If Germany attacked France If Russia attacked Austria The Reinsurance Treaty will NOT be renewed after Bismarck dismissed by Wilhelm II
Evaluate the effectiveness of Germany’s foreign policy under Bismarck. Was he successful in achieving his goals?
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