Presentation on theme: "International Rivalry and the Coming of War Chapter 24."— Presentation transcript:
International Rivalry and the Coming of War Chapter 24
The Bismarckian System Three Emperors’ League: Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Russia Balkans: ▫Both Russia and Austria wanted the Balkans; Russia for shortest overland route to Constantinople and Mediterranean, Austria for expansion. ▫Serbia and Montenegro declared war on Ottoman Empire in 1876 and lost, but Russia attacked and defeated the Ottomans. ▫Treaty of San Stefano 1878: created Bulgaria, gave Russia a satellite
▫Congress of Berlin 1878: dominated by Bismarck, reduced Bulgaria; Serbia, Montenegro and Romania became independent; Bosnia and Herzegovina were placed under Austrian protection New Alliances: ▫Russia was mad and terminated Three Emperors’ League in 1879 ▫Triple Alliance of 1882: Germany, Austria, Italy ▫Reinsurance Treaty 1887: Germany and Russia, worry of two-front war 1890, Bismarck dismissed by Emperor William II !
New Directions and New Crises: ▫Emperor William II: “place in the sun”, let treaty with Russia lapse ▫Triple Entente: Great Britain, France, and Russia ▫Opposing camps, inflexible, unwilling to compromise Crises in the Balkans, 1908-1913: ▫Bosnian Crisis (1908-1909): Bosnia and Herzegovina were annexed by Austria, Serbia outraged, Russia supported Serbia but wasn’t ready for war ▫First Balkan War: 1912, Balkan League defeated Ottomans and conquered Macedonia and Albania ▫Second Balkan War: 1913, fought over division of land
▫Serbia wanted Albanian land to give them a port on Adriatic Sea ▫London Conference: independence for Albania, Serbia and Russia upset, militarism ▫Spark for the powder keg?