5Work at your table and jot one thought at a time on Literacy… What is Literacy?Work at your table and jot one thought at a time on Literacy…What is literacy and why is it important to what we teach? Jot Thoughts
6Effective Reading Instruction... Students should spend the bulk of their time reading continuous text.Students need to read high-quality texts to build a reading process.Students need to read a variety of texts to build a reading process.Students need to read a large quantity of texts to build a reading process.Students need to read different texts for different purposes.
7Effective Reading Instruction... Students need to hear many texts read aloud.Students need different levels of support at different times.“Level” means different things in different instructional contextsThe more students read for authentic purposes, the more likely they are to make a place for reading in their lives.Students need to see themselves as readers with tastes and preferences.
8Balanced Literacy Framework Circular: Cyclical in that we should be using these components throughout the entire instructional day and not just limit us to our literacy block
9Balanced LiteracyBalanced literacy is a structured framework designed to help all students learn to read and write effectively. Using a balanced literacy structure ensures all students can learn to read and write. This balance between reading and writing allows students to receive the individualized instruction appropriate to their strengths and needs in literacy.
10Balanced Literacy Keys Student-Centered ClassroomDaily reading opportunitiesDaily writing opportunitiesVariety of group settings: whole group, small group, individualFocus on different types of readingFocus on different types of writingEmploys the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model
12Turn and TalkDo you agree or disagree with this quote? Think about this in terms of balanced literacy: Read Aloud-giving them a taste “whet their appetite” Independent reading- read and swallow them, guided reading- we spend more time on them…chew and digest. It can also be a good reminder to us that often times as teachers we feel like books are to be read cover to cover, but it acceptable for readers to read excerpts or even abandon books at times depending on the purpose for the read.
13TextsBig books allow teachers to model concepts about print and to engage children in shared reading.Predictable texts provide emergent readers opportunities to learn and apply concepts of print even before they understand the alphabetic principle.Decodable texts provide beginning readers with opportunities to apply their growing understanding of the alphabetic system to texts specially designed for that purpose; they maximize both support and challenge.Sets of leveled readers and trade books allow teachers to gauge and support fluency development.Electronic texts, in the form of Web sites and online resources, allow readers the chance to develop strategies for searching and synthesizing and to access and evaluate new ideas as they are needed.
14ReadAloud…is a time when the teacher reads quality text aloud to the whole class and stops at planned points to ask questions that elicit student response. Students learn to think deeply about text, to listen to others, and to grow their own ideas.
15What is a Purposeful Read Aloud? A PRA is a deliberate and explicit method of reading instruction.Teacher states the purpose of the read aloud to the students, as well as, list it on the agenda.Teacher models for the whole class vocabulary development, reading with fluency, and comprehension strategies to understand text by making his or her thinking visible, or transparent.Includes a variety of topics, genres, characters, settings, and plots (see clarifying box in standards)Text is above reading level of studentsStudents engage by turn and talk, sketching, quick writes
16Benefits of a Read Aloud acquaint children with a variety of genres and text structures,foster their comprehension proficiency both by relieving the burden of decoding and by scaffolding their thinking,model prosody,build vocabulary and knowledge, andcreate positive beliefs about and attitudes toward reading.Preparing for a Science Read-Aloud by Michael C. McKenna and Sharon Walpole
17Benefits of a Read Aloud Reading aloud in the classroom can lessen the oral language gap between children who were read to by parents and those who were not.Reading aloud to children increases language and literacy development when teachers are intentional and purposeful about why they read, what they read, and how books are read.Reading aloud includes strengthening cognitive development and instilling a sense of story structure and organization.
18Complex Text Fiction Magazine Articles Biographies Poetry Non-Fiction What can I use for a read aloud:FictionMagazine ArticlesBiographiesPoetryComplex TextNon-FictionNewspaper ArticlesAutobiographiesPrimary Source DocumentsMost of our elementary schools now have book rooms where you will find a variety of materials
19Selecting Read-Aloud Texts selected for their language structures, their content coverage, or their text structures – are the most flexible texts of allfree from many of the constraints, they don’t have to be matched to children’s decoding and fluency skills; complex textthey can be chosen to link and integrate the content areas (bringing math, science, and social studies content into the language arts; linking goals in comprehension with goals in composition) andthey don’t have to be purchased in multiple copiesthey can come from school and public librariesPreparing for a Science Read-Aloud by Michael C. McKenna and Sharon Walpole
20Where do I find appropriate titles to read aloud? Click doc. Screenshot to link to website: Read Aloud suggestions for grades K-3, 4-5 informational text as well as sample performance tasks to determine progress on standards have titles for reading across content areas.
21Important points to consider: Make sure you preview the book before reading it aloud to the students.Select books that are engaging, purposeful and will spark student’s interests.Students shouldn’t be just passive listeners — they should be involved throughout the process as active listeners.Make sure students understand your expectations for behavior during reading time.
22Text Talk, a discussion forum that makes use of open-ended questions during read-alouds with young students. “Engaging students in discussion after smaller segments of text rather than after reading the entire text provides opportunities for students to carefully consider ideas, clarify misconceptions, and grasp subtleties implied in the text.”Beck and McKeown (2001)
23Text Dependent Questions and Academic Vocabulary Text TalksText Dependent Questions and Academic VocabularyDo a text talk lesson with participants: Snowflake Bentley or Stellaluna LessonUtah Reading First Text Talk Lessons: click circle on slide with Read Aloud for hyperlink
24Content AreasThe first step in planning a science/social studies read-aloud is to appraise the book carefully.Start by reading the book from beginning to end for content.Self-assess your own understandingIt is vital that you resolve any difficulties you may have encountered so that you have a thorough understanding of the content.What portions of the book are hard to understand and why?You alone are in the best position to judge whether there is an appropriate match between the book and your students.
25Read Aloud across Content Areas… Once you judge the book to be an appropriate choice and have learned the content, read it again, this time attempting to empathize with your students.What knowledge does the author assume your students have, but that they probably lack?What new technical vocabulary is introduced and how is it linked to your essential standards in science/social studies?How has the author organized the book?Are there text features that represent complex patterns that mightpresent difficult choices about what to read next?What graphics are included and how useful are they?Are the graphics stand-alone or are they referred to in thetext?Ape= active link to classroom video clip: Read Aloud about Gorillas in a 4th grade classroom
26SharedReading…is a type of focus lesson in which either enlarged print is utilized, or all students have the text to “share” the reading process. The teacher uses this time, explicitly modeling reading strategies and skills that the students need to learn. The responsibility for reading is “shared” between the teacher and the students, although the teacher reads most of the text.
27What is Shared Reading? Everyone sees the text Text level at grade level or frustration level for most studentsTeacher is reading most of the text and models applying focused reading strategiesTracking print K-1Students engage by choral reading, oral/visual cloze, echo reading, turn and talkShould last minutes
29Strategies taught during Shared Reading K-2 StrategiesDirectionalityOne-to-one matchingLocating known words and lettersApplication of a phonics skillPredict and confirmSelf-correction strategiesVisualizationVocabulary strategiesMaking connectionsSetting a purposeText features3-6 StrategiesFix-up strategiesPredict and confirmSelf-correction strategiesVisualizationVocabulary strategiesMaking connectionsSetting a purposeText featuresAsking questionsDetermining textimportanceGraphic organizers
30Work within Shared Reading addresses the following CCSS: (Depending on instructional delivery and expectations of students, other standards may also be addressed)R.1 - Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from itR.2 - Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.R.3 - Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.R.4 - Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning and tone.R.5 - Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text relate to each other and the whole.R.6 - Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.R.7 - Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.R.8 - Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.R.9 - Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.R.10 - Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
31Prior to Shared Reading Select a more difficult text than one you would use for guided reading but simpler than one you would read during a teacher read-aloud.Choose text based on relevant criteria such as print features, patterns in the text, and comprehension opportunities.Secure a copy of the text for each student because the heart of shared reading involves all students and the teacher looking at the text while reading together. (Morgan, Wilcox, & Eldredge, 2000).Preread the text, identifying your teaching points. Focus on a comprehension purpose, and direct the experience toward that purpose.Shared reading is highly useful for teaching about print and for illustrating strategies of cross-checking and monitoring. Plan carefully for these teaching moments to identify the lesson’s most important points.
32During Shared ReadingSupport fluent shared reading in which you read the text aloud while students read aloud at the same time, with periodic stops to discuss content. (In kindergarten, shared reading often involves an enlarged text that everyone reads together, while upper grade students engage in shared reading with partners or in small groups).Engage in a think-aloud, modeling the strategies that are your instructional focus for the lesson. Support students in concentrating their energies on that focus. For example, a third-grade class can practice using context clues to determine the meanings of words.Regardless of grade level, shared reading should engage students in a discussion of the text. Support students in thinking deeply about their reading and in discovering things in the text.
33After Reading Revisit the text during other group reading times. SharedReadingRevisit the text during other group reading times.Provide students with their own copies of the text that they can carry into their independent reading/partner reading.If the text remains difficult for some students, let them practice with more teacher support in a small-group, shared reading experience.This may come during your focus lessons if you using daily 5. The text used during shared reading can also be available for student to read during partner reading.
34Shared Reading Activity: The House Close Reading1st Read: Teacher Reads Aloud text, as students follow along to get familiar with text.2nd Read: Reread with partner and annotate text , examples: ? Confusing or questions you have! Important or WOW!T-T, T-S, T-W Connections3rd Read: Reread as table group from theperspective/point of view assigned to youby the teacher; note-taker make notes ofImportant pointsShare out with large groupClose Read- teacher reads aloudImportance of having a clear purpose for readingPoint of view, inferencingClose reading
35Shared Reading Activity: Predict-O-Gram Read Aloud: A Camping Spree with Mr. Mageeby Chris Van DusenCatawba County Public Library Tumblebooks (ebooks)Tiny URL:Purpose:Predict-o-gram is a pre-reading means of prediction for what will happen in a story. It is also a post-reading means of checking the predictions for accuracy
36Predict-O-Gram Directions C. Blachowicz, 1986Teacher selects a group of vocabulary words for a selected text and writes them on the board, post-it notes. or index cardsStudents use the word to complete a Predict-O-Gram chartEveryone shares his/her predictions with the class.Students read the text independently.As a group, the students are now compare their previous prediction.A follow-up may be to have the students complete the Predict-O-Gram chart with any additional information or necessary changes or students could complete a graphic organizer such as Somebody Wanted But So ThenPredict-O-Grams help support students in using critical thinking skills as they read.
37trailer bear rocky hitch Dee hot dogs hillside camper waterfall Write the following words/phrases on sticky-notes:trailerhitchMr. Mageebearshimmyinginto thegapDeerockyhillsidehot dogs.camperwaterfallmarshmallowsbackyardembersbusheshigh on a hillsnoringandsneezingcampfire
39Predict-O-Gram follow-up possibilities:: Somebody Wanted But So Then . Sentence Frames for summarizing:The story takes place ____________is a character in the story who ____A problem occurs when _____Then ______The problem is solved when ____The story ends _______SWBST foldable
40Shared Reading Activity: Narrative Pyramid 1st Read: Read a text/poem aloud2nd read-then have students read chorally3rd read- as partners, reread and complete the graphic organizer based on the characterEach table group, create a narrative pyramid for the poem we just read:Ode to Pablo’s Tennis ShoesLet’s brainstormhow we could takethis tool and createa nonfiction pyramid
41Poem: Ode to Pablo’s Tennis Shoes Activities to use with poems:Question stemsSenses foldableColor code descriptive language or particular grammatical features you are working onPractice with terminology: stanza, lineHigher Order Thinking: Why do you think the author/poet chose to put the blank space between stanzas where he did?Identify figurative language
42Shared Reading Across Content Areas Prepare participants to read Inventor of the Cotton Gin. Pre-reading: We are going to biography, this is a true story about a person who impacted our history. During reading: stop and point out reading for meaning using context clues, rapidly, manufacture, litigation, patentTimeline Activity to show extension of shared reading and interactive activities:Reread as small group- get with numbered group to discuss story, reread; Numbered heads together for questionsTimeline Line-upTimeline Extension!
43Numbered Heads Together 1. For what invention is Eli Whitney best known and when was it invented by Whitney?2. What does a cotton gin do?3. What problems did Eli Whitney have regarding hisinvention?4. In what way(s) was the cotton gin beneficial?5. How do you think the invention of the cotton gin caused “an increased need for slavery in America?”Cotton ginMechanically removes seeds from cottonOther people copying his design and selling itReduced labor 50 folds without loss of jobs; enhanced growth of the cotton industry5. Answers vary but must provide textual evidence for supportTimeline answersEli Whitney Line Up CardsEli Whitney was born in Westboro,Massachusetts on Dec. 8, 1765.Eli Whitney died on Jan. 8, 1825.Eli Whitney left home when he was 23years old.Eli Whitney graduated from Yale Collegein 1792.A year after he graduated from college,Eli Whitney moved South and inventedthe cotton gin.Eli Whitney’s cotton gin was patented 2years after he invented it.6It was 14 years after inventing the cottongin that Eli Whitney’s patent was actuallyvalidated.The unwillingness of the Southernplanters to pay for the use of Whitney’sgin put his company out of business by 1797.
44Shared Reading Activity Recall with your shoulder partner, the steps of the lesson in which you participated.What process do you think you put into practice?What standards were taught?How could we extend this lesson, using this text?Close Reading of Complex TextSocial Studies, Reading Informational TextPrimary Source Documents: Original Patent, Constitution-Article 8, Compare and Contrast other sources, Historical impact on agriculture (Science)
45Additional Resources: Click on tab at top Curricula- choose grade levelIntegrated lesson plansLiteracy, Math, Science, Social Studies
47GuidedReading… is the component in which the teacher meets with a small group that needs to work on a specific strategy or that has a similar reading level. Each student has a copy of the text and reads it quietly. The teacher uses this time to explicitly teach and to have students practice the strategy they need to learn while providing immediate feedback.
48What is Guided Reading?Teacher supports children in reading materials they cannot read totally independently (instructional level).Teacher helps students learn reading strategies to apply to other reading situations.Can be done individually or with a small group (no more than six) to support understandings of any aspect of reading.Teacher makes Guided Reading decisions based on observations of what the child can or cannot do to construct meaning.It is usually done with a text not totally familiar to the child.The children learn from and support each other.
49Good-Bye Round RobinIt provides students with an inaccurate view of reading.It can potentially cause faulty reading habits instead of effective reading strategies.It can cause unnecessary subvocalization (movement of lips without sound) – hinders fluent silent reading.It can cause inattentive behaviors, leading to discipline problems.It can work against all students developing to their full potential.It consumes valuable classroom time that could be spent on other meaningful activities.It can be a source of anxiety and embarrassment for students.It can hamper listening comprehension.
50Before Guided Reading… Teacher selects a text that matches the reader’s needsTeacher sets a purpose for the reading lessonTeach or reinforce skills and strategiesPreview text and activate background knowledgeIntroduce vocabulary in context
51During Guided Reading Teacher takes an informal running record Teach the reader, not the bookLimit teacher talkStudents read: stagger start, whisper phones, independent, high volume/low volumeMid-first grade and above – no choral readingUse volume monitoringBe careful of students falling in stepNo round robin readingNot increasing reading volume, students waiting
52Plan for Odd Numbered Lessons Plan for Even Numbered Lessons Lesson DesignPlan for Odd Numbered Lessons3-5 minutesRereading BooksPhonics/Word Work10-15 minutesNew Book (Instructional Level)Plan for Even Numbered Lessons3-5 minutesRereading Books/ AssessmentPhonics/Word Work10 minutesWriting About ReadingNew Book (Independent Level)There are several different models out there for guided reading, however, in order to get the most out of our time with our small group and to ensure we are providing a balanced literacy approach, we chose this model to best fit scheduling in Catawba County. This isn’t to say that it has to be identical to this, but you should include writing into your guided reading time.
53What to Teach Figuring out unknown words – decoding or vocabulary Understanding Text/StrategiesSelf Monitoring (self correction)/Self EvaluationFluencyResponding to TextInterpreting TextThese are just a few suggestions.
54After Reading… Revisit teaching points Set expectation for application during Independent Reading
55DMia will give specific cut points when you meets with you on Friday regarding mCLASS state assessments K-3/ some schools also do testing at grades 3-6
56Fitting It All InResearch shows that students that are on or above grade level need 2-3 times per week.Strugglers (below grade level) need 2 extra small groups each week = 5Mon.Tues.Wed.Thurs.Fri.A,B,CB,C,D
58What are my other students doing? Word Study Practice!Independent Writing opportunity!Give students responsibility for reading text independently!Other example could be skill specific or genre specific, such as PoetryUpper grades 3-6 we encourage at least 3 components: Read to Self, Writing, and Word Work3rd graders must be able to read and understand one million words on their own!
59Independent Reading read text (either self-selected or …is a time when studentsread text (either self-selected orteacher recommended) at their Independent Reading level to practice reading strategies, develop fluency and automaticity. The teacher confers with students one-on-one, prompts the use of the strategies, discusses various aspects of the text, and learns about each student as a reader. Students may respond to the text in meaningful ways through writing, discussing, or sketching.
60Accelerating Reading Growth… The Importance of Independent ReadingThe Matthew Effect“Students who read well, read more, and consequently, get better at reading. However, students who do not read well, read less, and consequently, do not get better at reading.”-Stanovich, 1986Accelerating Reading Growth…Requires increasing the amount of high success reading, which is defined as accurate, fluent reading with understanding.-Allington, 2009
61Keys to Independent Reading Daily time for students to practice their reading, apply skills/strategies taughtStudents choose and read “just right” books (books on their independent reading level)Students read continuously, keep records, reflect/respond, confer with teacher
62Choosing the Right Book: I PICK I – choose a bookPurpose – Why do I want to read it?Interest – Does it interest me?Comprehension – Am I understanding what I read?Know – I know most of the words!Google search images for I Pick poster and you will get tons of free mini posters
631 2 3 3 Ways to Read a Book Read and talk about the pictures. Read the words.3Retell a book you have read.Retell the sequence, include the main idea and important detailsEspecially good for K-2 readers
64Ask yourself…How much of what I’m asking students to do is actual reading versus how much of what they are being asked to do is stuff about reading, but not actual reading? Is what I am asking my students to do really what readers do in the real world?-Morgan, 2009
65The of the balanced literacy classroom. Classroom LibraryThe of the balanced literacy classroom.Literacy development is facilitated by rich, organized classroom libraries.Classroom libraries have different sets of books for different purposes.
68Word Study …is the component that allows students work with words through fun and engaging lessons. Through word study, students learn letters and the sounds they make. They then move on to root words, suffixes and prefixes, and how to derive meaning of words.
69Focus on how words work Word Study Word Study Instruction in Reading includes:phonemic awarenessphonicsvocabularyWord Study Instruction in Writing includes:phonics spellinggrammar
70Grammar Vocabulary Phonics and Phonemic Awareness Spelling In regards to balanced literacy, we need to address the importance that these pieces play in daily instruction.Phonics and Phonemic Awareness are part of the five literacy components recognized by the national reading panel. We must provide this foundational instruction for our students, not only because it is expected within our reading foundational standards, but because it is imperative to their development of word knowledge.Louisa Moats reminds us that approximately 84% of the words in the English language are predictable therefore we provide our students with the fundamentals to be able to decode those words.An effective phonics program follows a defined sequence and includes direct teaching of a set of letter-sound relationships. Each instructional set includes sound-spelling relationships of both consonants and vowels. Sequencing helps students to learn the relationship between letters and sounds, and to use that knowledge to blend the sounds in order to read words, and to segregate the sounds in order to write words, even before they have learned all the letter-sound correspondences. Effective programs also include books and stories that contain a lot of words for children to decode using letter-sound relationships, and provide children with opportunities to spell words and write their own stories using letter-sound relationships (Blevins, 1998; Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement [CIERA], 2001; NRP, 2000; Texas Education Agency [TEA], 2000).Phonics instruction provides key knowledge and skills needed for beginning reading. However, phonics should not be the entire reading program, but should be integrated with other elements such as language activities, story time, and small group tutoring, to create a balanced reading programSpelling should be differentiated and not for memorizationVocabulary instruction is very important and must begin early with tier II and tier III wordsGrammar and punctuation should be taught in CONTEXT and not solely in isolation.
71A critical component of balanced reading instruction is direct explicit instruction in: • phonemic and phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in kindergarten and first grade;• alphabetic knowledge, and blending and sound/symbol correspondence, structural analysis,contextual clues, and high frequency words; spelling;• comprehension strategies in order to evaluate, synthesize, analyze, connect, infer, and inquire;• vocabulary instruction.
72Work within Word Work addresses the following CCSS: (Please note that depending on instructional delivery and expectations of students, other standards may also be addressed)RF.1 - Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.RF.2 - Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds.RF.3 - Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.RF.4 - Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
73Vocabulary Strategy: PWIM (Picture Word Induction Model) Calhoun (1998) developed the Picture Word Inductive Model (PWIM), which uses pictures containing familiar objects, actions and scenes to draw out words from children’s listening and speaking vocabularies. This model helps students add words to their sight reading vocabulary, as well as their writing vocabulary, and also discover phonetic and structural principles present in those words.Video clip
74How do I PWIM?Words are ‘shaken out’ or listed by the poster by the students.The words are categorized and read as a class over a series of days.Each class writes and reads sentences using the words. Then, depending on the grade level, the sentences are categorized and formed into paragraphs. The students then write paragraphs.The strength of using this strategy from K to grade 6 is that it will help build students’ vocabulary and writing abilities. Kindergarten begins the foundation and all of the other grades add more content and skill development through grade 6.
75Extensions for PWIMCreate clues or riddles to reinforce/practice word use:Which words have twin letters? tall, green, grass, puddleWhich word is something you might see in a mirror and in a pond or lake? reflectionWhich words end in an "er" sound water, mother, beaverWhich word has two syllables that rhyme with each other? backpackThis word has an animal inside it! cattailWhat are two words that rhyme with puddle? huddle, cuddle(Words from a picture related to exploring/camping theme)
76Through various writing experiences, students develop writing strategies and skills, learn about the writer’s craft, and use writing as a tool for learning and communication. Students write for sustained periods, compose a variety of texts, and explore different genres and formats for a range of purposes and for a variety of audiences.WritingWriting can include but is not limited to:Writer’s WorkshopInteractive WritingShared WritingBeing A WriterJournaling and ReflectionsWriting in the content areasWriter’s Notebook
77Work within Writing addresses the following CCSS: (Depending on instructional delivery and expectations of students, other standards may also be addressed)W.1 - Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.W.2 - Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.W.3 - Write narratives to develop real or imagines experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.W.4 - Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.W.5 - Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.W.6 - Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.W.7 - Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.W.8 - Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.W.9 - Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.W.10 - Write routinely over extended time frames and shorter time frames for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
78Modeled Writing active writer. The teacher … is the teacher being anactive writer. The teachermodels the selection of topics;demonstrates the skills of gathering and organizing information; shows the need to clarify meaning; and models the ways in which information can be reordered, reoriented, changed, or deleted. Thinking aloud is critical in this component.
79What does a modeled writing session look like? The teacher is modeling not only the words that go down on paper or the specific focus of the lesson, but the teacher is also modeling the thoughts that go with the writing. The teacher is “thinking aloud” while writing.Often the teacher is writing slowly and saying the words a few ahead of what he/she is writing. Verbalizing when stuck and rereading what is written.
80How does a teacher model writing? Use chart paper, document camera, dry erase board, or SchoolPad to model writing. Children benefit from this method since they can see the teacher forming letters, words, and sentences on a large scale directly in front of them.
81Topic SelectionTeachers need to model how to select a topic, how to give reasons for topic selection, and how to write on a variety of topics. It is also beneficial for students to see their teacher keeping a topic list.
82Writing in a Variety of Text Types Teachers need to model the usefulness of drawing pictures or diagrams, making graphic organizers, jotting inmargins, and note-taking.
83Writing in a variety of Text Types In order for children to write in a variety of forms, they need to hear and see the variations. Avariety of genres should be read aloud to students. Theteacher should discuss thevariety of genres and then model writing that genre.
84Editing and RevisingTeachers need to model ways that writing can be changed, rearranged, or deleted. At this point, teacher “think aloud” is imperative.
85Shared Writing …is an instructional approach to teach writing by writing with your students.Teaching writing through the writing process allows the teacher to employ a “write aloud” opportunity. The teacher scribes while the students contribute ideas.SharedWriting
86During shared writing, the teacher transcribes the entire text whileengaging students in a rich discussionabout how the text should be composed.Shared writing is taught to small groups or a whole class in briskly paced, 5- to 20-minute lessons.Plan lessons for types of writing that present particular challenges to your students.
87Shared Writing Process Establish a purpose for the writing.Write the text yourself in front of studentsModel processes needed by your studentsDemonstrate in-the-moment revisionEstablish a purpose for the writing and an intellectually engaging opportunity for students to apply new learning. Students might write a letter to a local newspaper or write directions for a new game they have developed.Write the entire text yourself in front of students (using chart paper or document viewer) while requesting input from students regarding aspects of the writing where they most need to expand their expertise. Consider, for example, whether your students need to focus attention on paragraph structure, word choice, or sentence expansion.During the writing, model processes needed by your students. Have a small whiteboard available, for example, to demonstrate to students how to say a word slowly and write sounds heard into "sound boxes" (Clay, 2006) before writing a phonetically regular word into the text for them. For older students, begin with a root word and demonstrate how to add prefixes or suffixes to a new word.Demonstrate in-the-moment revision during shared writing as necessary to construct a strong draft. Reread the text to students from time to time to discuss what needs to be written next or to monitor whether or not the text conveys information clearly. Add a word using a caret, for example, or delete unneeded text.Read the completed text to students. Take a few minutes to have students orally summarize what has been learned about writing during this session.Post the text in an accessible spot in the classroom, and provide opportunities for students to read or use the text multiple times over the next several days or weeks
88Shared Writing Process Reread the text to students from time to time.Read the completed text to students.Post the text in an accessible spot in the classroom, and provide opportunities for students to read or use the text multiple times over the next several days or weeksEstablish a purpose for the writing and an intellectually engaging opportunity for students to apply new learning. Students might write a letter to a local newspaper or write directions for a new game they have developed.Write the entire text yourself in front of students (using chart paper or document viewer) while requesting input from students regarding aspects of the writing where they most need to expand their expertise. Consider, for example, whether your students need to focus attention on paragraph structure, word choice, or sentence expansion.During the writing, model processes needed by your students. Have a small whiteboard available, for example, to demonstrate to students how to say a word slowly and write sounds heard into "sound boxes" (Clay, 2006) before writing a phonetically regular word into the text for them. For older students, begin with a root word and demonstrate how to add prefixes or suffixes to a new word.Demonstrate in-the-moment revision during shared writing as necessary to construct a strong draft. Reread the text to students from time to time to discuss what needs to be written next or to monitor whether or not the text conveys information clearly. Add a word using a caret, for example, or delete unneeded text.Read the completed text to students. Take a few minutes to have students orally summarize what has been learned about writing during this session.Post the text in an accessible spot in the classroom, and provide opportunities for students to read or use the text multiple times over the next several days or weeks
89Benefits of Shared Writing Reinforces and supports reading as well as writingMakes is possible for all students to participateEncourages close examination of texts, words, and options of authorsDemonstrates the conventions of writing, spelling, punctuations and grammarFocuses on composing and leaves transcribing to the teacherHelps build motivation and increases confidence in struggling readersStep towards independent writingRegie Routman
90InteractiveWriting… is a collaborative writing experience for beginning writers in which the teacher guides students in the group- writing of a large-print text. Students participate in the composition and construction of the text by sharing the pen, physically and figuratively, with the teacher. The composition is read and reread by the group to make the reading and writing connection.Mostly used at K-1
91Interactive Writing Process Teacher sets the purpose for the interactive writing lesson.Teacher and students brainstorm ideas together.Teacher elicits students ideas.Teacher and students compose the text by “sharing” the pen.Teacher models the writing process, specific element of writing, and revising with the students.Class reads aloud writing together and revisits the text as it is posted in the room.
92Implement your own informational (science/social studies) writing activity Start by choosing a shared experience and then continue on with the following steps.Do the activity together.Ask questions to elicit responses about the information that the children have learned.For young children, you might simply have them tell you something new that they have learned.For older children, it is appropriate to help them organize what they learned into main ideas.Write the children’s responses.Read the responses with the children to makesure that they say what you all want them to.Work together to make any changes needed.
93How can I use Interactive Writing? Writers need a purpose for writing and an audience. Use the learning experiences of the students to establish a purpose and audience to create written text collaboratively.Create a shopping list.Compose a group story.Create a sign.Write a letter.Compose a set of directions.Respond to a survey question.Summarize or extend a story read in guided reading.Summarize or extend a story that has been read aloud.Label art or a classroom item.Record information from an experiment.Record information from a class study or research.
94Graffiti Wall/Board Read the poem: Learning Bricks Use one section of the paper and respond (in any format) to your thoughts, reflections, opinions, beliefs, questions, etc. that you have after reading the poemYou may use illustrations, words, sentences, paragraphs, poetry, etc. to reflect- be creative with your space
95Guided Writing …is a time when the teacher is focused tightly on a small groupof learners. During this smallgroup time, the teacher can reteachminilessons shared with the wholeclass and give an opportunity for the writers to engage with the minilesson concepts while the teacher is close by to guide and support. This small group time might be an opportunity to stretch and expand the writing skills of gifted students, to reteach key writing skills for struggling students, or to demonstrate an informational text feature a group of students would find helpful in their content writing. As in guided reading, this time is built upon learner needs. Groups are small, flexible and short term.GuidedWritingOften = second day of guided reading group time
96Getting Started with Guided Writing Prior to beginning guided writing, train your students to form peer critique groups. They can help each other while you work with a small group. Do not allow students to interrupt your lesson unless it is a true emergency.
97Guided Writing as an Extension of Guided Reading Guided writing fits naturally as an extension of a guided reading lesson, taking students into the world of the writer in response to their reading. Ask students to revisit their guided reading selection and think with the eyes of an informational author.What do we notice about this author’s word choice, use of bullets in a list, use of captions, or conventions such as bold face headings.How did these help us as readers?How might we use those tools in our own informational writing?The next step would be for students to begin writing or revising their own informational piece.Linda Hoyt
98Guided Writing in Content Areas Math, science, and social studies all offer rich opportunities to gather small guided writing groups for explicit instruction and support on writing in the content areas. Even a brief session can heighten learner awareness and bring increased skill to their written communications.Linda Hoyt
99…is the component that affords students an opportunity to write about self-selected topics. They apply skills and strategies that are learned during shared writing, interactive writing, guided writing, and word study. The teacher uses this time to confer individually with students to assess their strengths and needs.IndependentWriting
100Independent Writing Independent writing should occur daily! Can be part of your guided reading stations ex. Work on Writing within Daily 5 structureStudents can:Respond to textJournalWork on draftsPublish work
102100 min. Insert daily five graphic Based on Brain research from Dr. Ken Wesson, the age of the child indicates the number of minutes they can maintain stamina in whole class and small group lessons. Take a minute to reflect on your teaching time. Does it reflect this research? What structure changes may be necessary to align your instructional time to the brain research?
106Small group instruction area Large group instruction area Word WallKey Features:Small group instruction areaLarge group instruction areaCollaborative groupsLiterature Circles (optional)Literacy stationsPrint rich environment:- active word wall- organized classroom library- leveled readers- big books- word workSo what does a balanced literacy classroom look like?What are some of the key features that you notice about the classroom design in relationship to a balanced literacy classroom?Any obstacles that you might envision from teachers’ point of view?
108Assessment and evaluation Assessment of student performance and instructional practices should be done on an ongoing basis. Student progress should be monitored through:running records, miscue analysis (mCLASS)anecdotal recordsskill and strategy checklistsreading and writing inventoriesstudent work samplesaudio or videotapes of student performancestudent self-assessmentsother formal or informal
109Literacy instruction should be based on assessment information Literacy instruction should be based on assessment information. It informs good teaching and documents individual learning throughout the year. Literacy lessons are best taught every day during blocks of uninterrupted time. These lessons should include intensive amounts of reading and writing. Instruction should include attention to letters and words and how they work. Phonics and word study is incorporated daily.
110“A balanced literacy approach focuses on two essential areas: reading and writing. This approach engages children in a variety of authentic reading and writing experiences… It benefits students in many ways: students develop a broad range of reading and writing abilities; both focused instruction and independent work are valued so there is a better chance to meet the needs of a diverse group of students; students learn basic information and skills but they also develop strategies that will help them apply their knowledge in a variety of reading and writing contexts; there is an emphasis on comprehension, which is the goal of all reading.”Pinnell, 2000
113Resources:Button, K., M. Johnson, & P. Furgerson. Interactive Writing in a Primary Classroom. The Reading Teacher 49, 6:Dorn, Linda; French, Cathy; & Jones, Tammy. Apprenticeship in Literacy: Transitions Across Reading and Writing. York, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers, 1998.Fountas, Irene C. Voices on Word Matters. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1999.Fountas, Irene C. & Pinnell, Gay Su. Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1996.McCarrier, Andrea; Pinnell, Gay Su; & Fountas, Irene C. Interactive Writing: How Language and Literacy Come Together, K-2. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000.
114Contact Information:Lora Drum, Curriculum Specialist Balls Creek Elementary, Office Mia Johnson, Curriculum Specialist Murray Elementary, Office
115Catawba County ELA Resources Main CCS webpage:Click for dropdown menu:Inside CCS (tab- far left side)Select and click Elementary EducationSelect and Click on Boxes