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Balanced Literacy August 13, 2014 Lora Drum Mia Johnson

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1 Balanced Literacy August 13, 2014 Lora Drum Mia Johnson
Curriculum Specialists Catawba County Schools August 13, 2014

2 Today’s Agenda Welcome & Introductions
8:00- 12:00-ELA Focus- Balanced Literacy 12:00-12:45- Lunch (Carol Moore- Science Curriculum Specialist) 12:45 Wrap-up with ELA focus (web resources, Q&A) 1:30-3:00 Technology Facilitators Thursday- Math and Cooperative Learning Friday- mCLASS introduction

3 Today’s Goal:. To provide you with “tools” for your ELA toolbox
Today’s Goal: * To provide you with “tools” for your ELA toolbox. * To provide a framework for your ELA block.

4 Note Taking Balanced Literacy Read Aloud Modeled Writing
Shared Reading Shared Writing Guided Reading Interactive Writing Independent Reading Guided Writing Word Study Independent Writing

5 Work at your table and jot one thought at a time on Literacy…
What is Literacy? Work at your table and jot one thought at a time on Literacy… What is literacy and why is it important to what we teach? Jot Thoughts

6 Effective Reading Instruction...
Students should spend the bulk of their time reading continuous text. Students need to read high-quality texts to build a reading process. Students need to read a variety of texts to build a reading process. Students need to read a large quantity of texts to build a reading process. Students need to read different texts for different purposes.

7 Effective Reading Instruction...
Students need to hear many texts read aloud. Students need different levels of support at different times. “Level” means different things in different instructional contexts The more students read for authentic purposes, the more likely they are to make a place for reading in their lives. Students need to see themselves as readers with tastes and preferences.

8 Balanced Literacy Framework
Circular: Cyclical in that we should be using these components throughout the entire instructional day and not just limit us to our literacy block

9 Balanced Literacy Balanced literacy is a structured framework designed to help all students learn to read and write effectively. Using a balanced literacy structure ensures all students can learn to read and write. This balance between reading and writing allows students to receive the individualized instruction appropriate to their strengths and needs in literacy.

10 Balanced Literacy Keys
Student-Centered Classroom Daily reading opportunities Daily writing opportunities Variety of group settings: whole group, small group, individual Focus on different types of reading Focus on different types of writing Employs the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model


12 Turn and Talk Do you agree or disagree with this quote? Think about this in terms of balanced literacy: Read Aloud-giving them a taste “whet their appetite” Independent reading- read and swallow them, guided reading- we spend more time on them…chew and digest. It can also be a good reminder to us that often times as teachers we feel like books are to be read cover to cover, but it acceptable for readers to read excerpts or even abandon books at times depending on the purpose for the read.

13 Texts Big books allow teachers to model concepts about print and to engage children in shared reading. Predictable texts provide emergent readers opportunities to learn and apply concepts of print even before they understand the alphabetic principle. Decodable texts provide beginning readers with opportunities to apply their growing understanding of the alphabetic system to texts specially designed for that purpose; they maximize both support and challenge. Sets of leveled readers and trade books allow teachers to gauge and support fluency development. Electronic texts, in the form of Web sites and online resources, allow readers the chance to develop strategies for searching and synthesizing and to access and evaluate new ideas as they are needed.

14 Read Aloud …is a time when the teacher reads quality text aloud to the whole class and stops at planned points to ask questions that elicit student response. Students learn to think deeply about text, to listen to others, and to grow their own ideas.

15 What is a Purposeful Read Aloud?
A PRA is a deliberate and explicit method of reading instruction. Teacher states the purpose of the read aloud to the students, as well as, list it on the agenda. Teacher models for the whole class vocabulary development, reading with fluency, and comprehension strategies to understand text by making his or her thinking visible, or transparent. Includes a variety of topics, genres, characters, settings, and plots (see clarifying box in standards) Text is above reading level of students Students engage by turn and talk, sketching, quick writes

16 Benefits of a Read Aloud
acquaint children with a variety of genres and text structures, foster their comprehension proficiency both by relieving the burden of decoding and by scaffolding their thinking, model prosody, build vocabulary and knowledge, and create positive beliefs about and attitudes toward reading. Preparing for a Science Read-Aloud by Michael C. McKenna and Sharon Walpole

17 Benefits of a Read Aloud
Reading aloud in the classroom can lessen the oral language gap between children who were read to by parents and those who were not. Reading aloud to children increases language and literacy development when teachers are intentional and purposeful about why they read, what they read, and how books are read. Reading aloud includes strengthening cognitive development and instilling a sense of story structure and organization.

18 Complex Text Fiction Magazine Articles Biographies Poetry Non-Fiction
What can I use for a read aloud: Fiction Magazine Articles Biographies Poetry Complex Text Non-Fiction Newspaper Articles Autobiographies Primary Source Documents Most of our elementary schools now have book rooms where you will find a variety of materials

19 Selecting Read-Aloud Texts
selected for their language structures, their content coverage, or their text structures – are the most flexible texts of all free from many of the constraints, they don’t have to be matched to children’s decoding and fluency skills; complex text they can be chosen to link and integrate the content areas (bringing math, science, and social studies content into the language arts; linking goals in comprehension with goals in composition) and they don’t have to be purchased in multiple copies they can come from school and public libraries Preparing for a Science Read-Aloud by Michael C. McKenna and Sharon Walpole

20 Where do I find appropriate titles to read aloud?
Click doc. Screenshot to link to website: Read Aloud suggestions for grades K-3, 4-5 informational text as well as sample performance tasks to determine progress on standards have titles for reading across content areas.

21 Important points to consider:
Make sure you preview the book before reading it aloud to the students. Select books that are engaging, purposeful and will spark student’s interests. Students shouldn’t be just passive listeners — they should be involved throughout the process as active listeners. Make sure students understand your expectations for behavior during reading time.

22 Text Talk, a discussion forum that makes use of open-ended questions during read-alouds with young students. “Engaging students in discussion after smaller segments of text rather than after reading the entire text provides opportunities for students to carefully consider ideas, clarify misconceptions, and grasp subtleties implied in the text.” Beck and McKeown (2001)

23 Text Dependent Questions and Academic Vocabulary
Text Talks Text Dependent Questions and Academic Vocabulary Do a text talk lesson with participants: Snowflake Bentley or Stellaluna Lesson Utah Reading First Text Talk Lessons: click circle on slide with Read Aloud for hyperlink

24 Content Areas The first step in planning a science/social studies read-aloud is to appraise the book carefully. Start by reading the book from beginning to end for content. Self-assess your own understanding It is vital that you resolve any difficulties you may have encountered so that you have a thorough understanding of the content. What portions of the book are hard to understand and why? You alone are in the best position to judge whether there is an appropriate match between the book and your students.

25 Read Aloud across Content Areas…
Once you judge the book to be an appropriate choice and have learned the content, read it again, this time attempting to empathize with your students. What knowledge does the author assume your students have, but that they probably lack? What new technical vocabulary is introduced and how is it linked to your essential standards in science/social studies? How has the author organized the book? Are there text features that represent complex patterns that might present difficult choices about what to read next? What graphics are included and how useful are they? Are the graphics stand-alone or are they referred to in the text? Ape= active link to classroom video clip: Read Aloud about Gorillas in a 4th grade classroom

26 Shared Reading …is a type of focus lesson in which either enlarged print is utilized, or all students have the text to “share” the reading process. The teacher uses this time, explicitly modeling reading strategies and skills that the students need to learn. The responsibility for reading is “shared” between the teacher and the students, although the teacher reads most of the text.

27 What is Shared Reading? Everyone sees the text
Text level at grade level or frustration level for most students Teacher is reading most of the text and models applying focused reading strategies Tracking print K-1 Students engage by choral reading, oral/visual cloze, echo reading, turn and talk Should last minutes

28 Complex Text!

29 Strategies taught during Shared Reading
K-2 Strategies Directionality One-to-one matching Locating known words and letters Application of a phonics skill Predict and confirm Self-correction strategies Visualization Vocabulary strategies Making connections Setting a purpose Text features 3-6 Strategies Fix-up strategies Predict and confirm Self-correction strategies Visualization Vocabulary strategies Making connections Setting a purpose Text features Asking questions Determining text importance Graphic organizers

30 Work within Shared Reading addresses the following CCSS:
(Depending on instructional delivery and expectations of students, other standards may also be addressed) R.1 - Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it R.2 - Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. R.3 - Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. R.4 - Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning and tone. R.5 - Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text relate to each other and the whole. R.6 - Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. R.7 - Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. R.8 - Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. R.9 - Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. R.10 - Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

31 Prior to Shared Reading
Select a more difficult text than one you would use for guided reading but simpler than one you would read during a teacher read-aloud. Choose text based on relevant criteria such as print features, patterns in the text, and comprehension opportunities. Secure a copy of the text for each student because the heart of shared reading involves all students and the teacher looking at the text while reading together. (Morgan, Wilcox, & Eldredge, 2000). Preread the text, identifying your teaching points. Focus on a comprehension purpose, and direct the experience toward that purpose. Shared reading is highly useful for teaching about print and for illustrating strategies of cross-checking and monitoring. Plan carefully for these teaching moments to identify the lesson’s most important points.

32 During Shared Reading Support fluent shared reading in which you read the text aloud while students read aloud at the same time, with periodic stops to discuss content. (In kindergarten, shared reading often involves an enlarged text that everyone reads together, while upper grade students engage in shared reading with partners or in small groups). Engage in a think-aloud, modeling the strategies that are your instructional focus for the lesson. Support students in concentrating their energies on that focus. For example, a third-grade class can practice using context clues to determine the meanings of words. Regardless of grade level, shared reading should engage students in a discussion of the text. Support students in thinking deeply about their reading and in discovering things in the text.

33 After Reading Revisit the text during other group reading times.
Shared Reading Revisit the text during other group reading times. Provide students with their own copies of the text that they can carry into their independent reading/partner reading. If the text remains difficult for some students, let them practice with more teacher support in a small-group, shared reading experience. This may come during your focus lessons if you using daily 5. The text used during shared reading can also be available for student to read during partner reading.

34 Shared Reading Activity: The House
Close Reading 1st Read: Teacher Reads Aloud text, as students follow along to get familiar with text. 2nd Read: Reread with partner and annotate text , examples: ? Confusing or questions you have ! Important or WOW! T-T, T-S, T-W Connections 3rd Read: Reread as table group from the perspective/point of view assigned to you by the teacher; note-taker make notes of Important points Share out with large group Close Read- teacher reads aloud Importance of having a clear purpose for reading Point of view, inferencing Close reading

35 Shared Reading Activity: Predict-O-Gram
Read Aloud: A Camping Spree with Mr. Magee by Chris Van Dusen Catawba County Public Library Tumblebooks (ebooks) Tiny URL: Purpose: Predict-o-gram is a pre-reading means of prediction for what will happen in a story. It is also a post-reading means of checking the predictions for accuracy

36 Predict-O-Gram Directions
C. Blachowicz, 1986 Teacher selects a group of vocabulary words for a selected text and writes them on the board, post-it notes. or index cards Students use the word to complete a Predict-O-Gram chart Everyone shares his/her predictions with the class. Students read the text independently. As a group, the students are now compare their previous prediction. A follow-up may be to have the students complete the Predict-O-Gram chart with any additional information or necessary changes or students could complete a graphic organizer such as Somebody Wanted But So Then Predict-O-Grams help support students in using critical thinking skills as they read.

37 trailer bear rocky hitch Dee hot dogs hillside camper waterfall
Write the following words/phrases on sticky-notes: trailer hitch Mr. Magee bear shimmying into the gap Dee rocky hillside hot dogs . camper waterfall marshmallows backyard embers bushes high on a hill snoring and sneezing campfire

38 Predict-O-Gram board/chart
Characters Setting Action Problem Solution Other .

39 Predict-O-Gram follow-up possibilities:: Somebody Wanted But So Then
. Sentence Frames for summarizing: The story takes place _______ _____is a character in the story who ____ A problem occurs when _____ Then ______ The problem is solved when ____ The story ends _______ SWBST foldable

40 Shared Reading Activity: Narrative Pyramid
1st Read: Read a text/poem aloud 2nd read-then have students read chorally 3rd read- as partners, reread and complete the graphic organizer based on the character Each table group, create a narrative pyramid for the poem we just read: Ode to Pablo’s Tennis Shoes Let’s brainstorm how we could take this tool and create a nonfiction pyramid

41 Poem: Ode to Pablo’s Tennis Shoes
Activities to use with poems: Question stems Senses foldable Color code descriptive language or particular grammatical features you are working on Practice with terminology: stanza, line Higher Order Thinking: Why do you think the author/poet chose to put the blank space between stanzas where he did? Identify figurative language

42 Shared Reading Across Content Areas
Prepare participants to read Inventor of the Cotton Gin. Pre-reading: We are going to biography, this is a true story about a person who impacted our history. During reading: stop and point out reading for meaning using context clues, rapidly, manufacture, litigation, patent Timeline Activity to show extension of shared reading and interactive activities: Reread as small group- get with numbered group to discuss story, reread; Numbered heads together for questions Timeline Line-up Timeline Extension!

43 Numbered Heads Together
1. For what invention is Eli Whitney best known and when was it invented by Whitney? 2. What does a cotton gin do? 3. What problems did Eli Whitney have regarding his invention? 4. In what way(s) was the cotton gin beneficial? 5. How do you think the invention of the cotton gin caused “an increased need for slavery in America?” Cotton gin Mechanically removes seeds from cotton Other people copying his design and selling it Reduced labor 50 folds without loss of jobs; enhanced growth of the cotton industry 5. Answers vary but must provide textual evidence for support Timeline answers Eli Whitney Line Up Cards Eli Whitney was born in Westboro, Massachusetts on Dec. 8, 1765. Eli Whitney died on Jan. 8, 1825. Eli Whitney left home when he was 23 years old. Eli Whitney graduated from Yale College in 1792. A year after he graduated from college, Eli Whitney moved South and invented the cotton gin. Eli Whitney’s cotton gin was patented 2 years after he invented it.6 It was 14 years after inventing the cotton gin that Eli Whitney’s patent was actually validated. The unwillingness of the Southern planters to pay for the use of Whitney’s gin put his company out of business by 1797.

44 Shared Reading Activity
Recall with your shoulder partner, the steps of the lesson in which you participated. What process do you think you put into practice? What standards were taught? How could we extend this lesson, using this text? Close Reading of Complex Text Social Studies, Reading Informational Text Primary Source Documents: Original Patent, Constitution-Article 8, Compare and Contrast other sources, Historical impact on agriculture (Science)

45 Additional Resources:
Click on tab at top Curricula- choose grade level Integrated lesson plans Literacy, Math, Science, Social Studies

46 Let’s take a peak into a classroom…

47 Guided Reading … is the component in which the teacher meets with a small group that needs to work on a specific strategy or that has a similar reading level. Each student has a copy of the text and reads it quietly. The teacher uses this time to explicitly teach and to have students practice the strategy they need to learn while providing immediate feedback.

48 What is Guided Reading? Teacher supports children in reading materials they cannot read totally independently (instructional level). Teacher helps students learn reading strategies to apply to other reading situations. Can be done individually or with a small group (no more than six) to support understandings of any aspect of reading. Teacher makes Guided Reading decisions based on observations of what the child can or cannot do to construct meaning. It is usually done with a text not totally familiar to the child. The children learn from and support each other.

49 Good-Bye Round Robin It provides students with an inaccurate view of reading. It can potentially cause faulty reading habits instead of effective reading strategies. It can cause unnecessary subvocalization (movement of lips without sound) – hinders fluent silent reading. It can cause inattentive behaviors, leading to discipline problems. It can work against all students developing to their full potential. It consumes valuable classroom time that could be spent on other meaningful activities. It can be a source of anxiety and embarrassment for students. It can hamper listening comprehension.

50 Before Guided Reading…
Teacher selects a text that matches the reader’s needs Teacher sets a purpose for the reading lesson Teach or reinforce skills and strategies Preview text and activate background knowledge Introduce vocabulary in context

51 During Guided Reading Teacher takes an informal running record
Teach the reader, not the book Limit teacher talk Students read: stagger start, whisper phones, independent, high volume/low volume Mid-first grade and above – no choral reading Use volume monitoring Be careful of students falling in step No round robin reading Not increasing reading volume, students waiting

52 Plan for Odd Numbered Lessons Plan for Even Numbered Lessons
Lesson Design Plan for Odd Numbered Lessons 3-5 minutes Rereading Books Phonics/Word Work 10-15 minutes New Book (Instructional Level) Plan for Even Numbered Lessons 3-5 minutes Rereading Books/ Assessment Phonics/Word Work 10 minutes Writing About Reading New Book (Independent Level) There are several different models out there for guided reading, however, in order to get the most out of our time with our small group and to ensure we are providing a balanced literacy approach, we chose this model to best fit scheduling in Catawba County. This isn’t to say that it has to be identical to this, but you should include writing into your guided reading time.

53 What to Teach Figuring out unknown words – decoding or vocabulary
Understanding Text/Strategies Self Monitoring (self correction)/Self Evaluation Fluency Responding to Text Interpreting Text These are just a few suggestions.

54 After Reading… Revisit teaching points
Set expectation for application during Independent Reading

55 D Mia will give specific cut points when you meets with you on Friday regarding mCLASS state assessments K-3/ some schools also do testing at grades 3-6

56 Fitting It All In Research shows that students that are on or above grade level need 2-3 times per week. Strugglers (below grade level) need 2 extra small groups each week = 5 Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. A,B,C B,C,D


58 What are my other students doing?
Word Study Practice! Independent Writing opportunity! Give students responsibility for reading text independently! Other example could be skill specific or genre specific, such as Poetry Upper grades 3-6 we encourage at least 3 components: Read to Self, Writing, and Word Work 3rd graders must be able to read and understand one million words on their own!

59 Independent Reading read text (either self-selected or
…is a time when students read text (either self-selected or teacher recommended) at their Independent Reading level to practice reading strategies, develop fluency and automaticity. The teacher confers with students one-on-one, prompts the use of the strategies, discusses various aspects of the text, and learns about each student as a reader. Students may respond to the text in meaningful ways through writing, discussing, or sketching.

60 Accelerating Reading Growth…
The Importance of Independent Reading The Matthew Effect “Students who read well, read more, and consequently, get better at reading. However, students who do not read well, read less, and consequently, do not get better at reading.” -Stanovich, 1986 Accelerating Reading Growth… Requires increasing the amount of high success reading, which is defined as accurate, fluent reading with understanding. -Allington, 2009

61 Keys to Independent Reading
Daily time for students to practice their reading, apply skills/strategies taught Students choose and read “just right” books (books on their independent reading level) Students read continuously, keep records, reflect/respond, confer with teacher

62 Choosing the Right Book: I PICK
I – choose a book Purpose – Why do I want to read it? Interest – Does it interest me? Comprehension – Am I understanding what I read? Know – I know most of the words! Google search images for I Pick poster and you will get tons of free mini posters

63 1 2 3 3 Ways to Read a Book Read and talk about the pictures.
Read the words. 3 Retell a book you have read. Retell the sequence, include the main idea and important details Especially good for K-2 readers

64 Ask yourself… How much of what I’m asking students to do is actual reading versus how much of what they are being asked to do is stuff about reading, but not actual reading? Is what I am asking my students to do really what readers do in the real world? -Morgan, 2009

65 The of the balanced literacy classroom.
Classroom Library The of the balanced literacy classroom. Literacy development is facilitated by rich, organized classroom libraries. Classroom libraries have different sets of books for different purposes.

66 Organization is important

67 Labels Genres Topics/Themes Levels

68 Word Study …is the component that allows students work with words
through fun and engaging lessons. Through word study, students learn letters and the sounds they make. They then move on to root words, suffixes and prefixes, and how to derive meaning of words.

69 Focus on how words work Word Study
Word Study Instruction in Reading includes: phonemic awareness phonics vocabulary Word Study Instruction in Writing includes: phonics spelling grammar

70 Grammar Vocabulary Phonics and Phonemic Awareness Spelling
In regards to balanced literacy, we need to address the importance that these pieces play in daily instruction. Phonics and Phonemic Awareness are part of the five literacy components recognized by the national reading panel. We must provide this foundational instruction for our students, not only because it is expected within our reading foundational standards, but because it is imperative to their development of word knowledge. Louisa Moats reminds us that approximately 84% of the words in the English language are predictable therefore we provide our students with the fundamentals to be able to decode those words. An effective phonics program follows a defined sequence and includes direct teaching of a set of letter-sound relationships. Each instructional set includes sound-spelling relationships of both consonants and vowels. Sequencing helps students to learn the relationship between letters and sounds, and to use that knowledge to blend the sounds in order to read words, and to segregate the sounds in order to write words, even before they have learned all the letter-sound correspondences. Effective programs also include books and stories that contain a lot of words for children to decode using letter-sound relationships, and provide children with opportunities to spell words and write their own stories using letter-sound relationships (Blevins, 1998; Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement [CIERA], 2001; NRP, 2000; Texas Education Agency [TEA], 2000). Phonics instruction provides key knowledge and skills needed for beginning reading. However, phonics should not be the entire reading program, but should be integrated with other elements such as language activities, story time, and small group tutoring, to create a balanced reading program Spelling should be differentiated and not for memorization Vocabulary instruction is very important and must begin early with tier II and tier III words Grammar and punctuation should be taught in CONTEXT and not solely in isolation.

71 A critical component of balanced reading instruction is direct explicit instruction in:
• phonemic and phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge in kindergarten and first grade; • alphabetic knowledge, and blending and sound/symbol correspondence, structural analysis, contextual clues, and high frequency words; spelling; • comprehension strategies in order to evaluate, synthesize, analyze, connect, infer, and inquire; • vocabulary instruction.

72 Work within Word Work addresses the following CCSS:
(Please note that depending on instructional delivery and expectations of students, other standards may also be addressed) RF.1 - Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. RF.2 - Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds. RF.3 - Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. RF.4 - Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

73 Vocabulary Strategy: PWIM (Picture Word Induction Model)
Calhoun (1998) developed the Picture Word Inductive Model (PWIM), which uses pictures containing familiar objects, actions and scenes to draw out words from children’s listening and speaking vocabularies. This model helps students add words to their sight reading vocabulary, as well as their writing vocabulary, and also discover phonetic and structural principles present in those words. Video clip

74 How do I PWIM? Words are ‘shaken out’ or listed by the poster by the students. The words are categorized and read as a class over a series of days. Each class writes and reads sentences using the words. Then, depending on the grade level, the sentences are categorized and formed into paragraphs. The students then write paragraphs. The strength of using this strategy from K to grade 6 is that it will help build students’ vocabulary and writing abilities. Kindergarten begins the foundation and all of the other grades add more content and skill development through grade 6.

75 Extensions for PWIM Create clues or riddles to reinforce/practice word use: Which words have twin letters? tall, green, grass, puddle Which word is something you might see in a mirror and in a pond or lake? reflection Which words end in an "er" sound water, mother, beaver Which word has two syllables that rhyme with each other? backpack This word has an animal inside it! cattail What are two words that rhyme with puddle? huddle, cuddle (Words from a picture related to exploring/camping theme)

76 Through various writing experiences, students develop writing strategies and skills, learn about the writer’s craft, and use writing as a tool for learning and communication. Students write for sustained periods, compose a variety of texts, and explore different genres and formats for a range of purposes and for a variety of audiences. Writing Writing can include but is not limited to: Writer’s Workshop Interactive Writing Shared Writing Being A Writer Journaling and Reflections Writing in the content areas Writer’s Notebook

77 Work within Writing addresses the following CCSS:
(Depending on instructional delivery and expectations of students, other standards may also be addressed) W.1 - Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. W.2 - Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. W.3 - Write narratives to develop real or imagines experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences. W.4 - Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. W.5 - Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. W.6 - Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others. W.7 - Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. W.8 - Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. W.9 - Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. W.10 - Write routinely over extended time frames and shorter time frames for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

78 Modeled Writing active writer. The teacher
… is the teacher being an active writer. The teacher models the selection of topics; demonstrates the skills of gathering and organizing information; shows the need to clarify meaning; and models the ways in which information can be reordered, reoriented, changed, or deleted. Thinking aloud is critical in this component.

79 What does a modeled writing session look like?
The teacher is modeling not only the words that go down on paper or the specific focus of the lesson, but the teacher is also modeling the thoughts that go with the writing. The teacher is “thinking aloud” while writing. Often the teacher is writing slowly and saying the words a few ahead of what he/she is writing. Verbalizing when stuck and rereading what is written.

80 How does a teacher model writing?
Use chart paper, document camera, dry erase board, or SchoolPad to model writing. Children benefit from this method since they can see the teacher forming letters, words, and sentences on a large scale directly in front of them.

81 Topic Selection Teachers need to model how to select a topic, how to give reasons for topic selection, and how to write on a variety of topics. It is also beneficial for students to see their teacher keeping a topic list.

82 Writing in a Variety of Text Types
Teachers need to model the usefulness of drawing pictures or diagrams, making graphic organizers, jotting in margins, and note-taking.

83 Writing in a variety of Text Types
In order for children to write in a variety of forms, they need to hear and see the variations. A variety of genres should be read aloud to students. The teacher should discuss the variety of genres and then model writing that genre.

84 Editing and Revising Teachers need to model ways that writing can be changed, rearranged, or deleted. At this point, teacher “think aloud” is imperative.

85 Shared Writing …is an instructional approach to teach writing by
writing with your students. Teaching writing through the writing process allows the teacher to employ a “write aloud” opportunity. The teacher scribes while the students contribute ideas. Shared Writing

86 During shared writing, the teacher
transcribes the entire text while engaging students in a rich discussion about how the text should be composed. Shared writing is taught to small groups or a whole class in briskly paced, 5- to 20-minute lessons. Plan lessons for types of writing that present particular challenges to your students.

87 Shared Writing Process
Establish a purpose for the writing. Write the text yourself in front of students Model processes needed by your students Demonstrate in-the-moment revision Establish a purpose for the writing and an intellectually engaging opportunity for students to apply new learning. Students might write a letter to a local newspaper or write directions for a new game they have developed. Write the entire text yourself in front of students (using chart paper or document viewer) while requesting input from students regarding aspects of the writing where they most need to expand their expertise. Consider, for example, whether your students need to focus attention on paragraph structure, word choice, or sentence expansion. During the writing, model processes needed by your students. Have a small whiteboard available, for example, to demonstrate to students how to say a word slowly and write sounds heard into "sound boxes" (Clay, 2006) before writing a phonetically regular word into the text for them. For older students, begin with a root word and demonstrate how to add prefixes or suffixes to a new word. Demonstrate in-the-moment revision during shared writing as necessary to construct a strong draft. Reread the text to students from time to time to discuss what needs to be written next or to monitor whether or not the text conveys information clearly. Add a word using a caret, for example, or delete unneeded text. Read the completed text to students. Take a few minutes to have students orally summarize what has been learned about writing during this session. Post the text in an accessible spot in the classroom, and provide opportunities for students to read or use the text multiple times over the next several days or weeks

88 Shared Writing Process
Reread the text to students from time to time. Read the completed text to students. Post the text in an accessible spot in the classroom, and provide opportunities for students to read or use the text multiple times over the next several days or weeks Establish a purpose for the writing and an intellectually engaging opportunity for students to apply new learning. Students might write a letter to a local newspaper or write directions for a new game they have developed. Write the entire text yourself in front of students (using chart paper or document viewer) while requesting input from students regarding aspects of the writing where they most need to expand their expertise. Consider, for example, whether your students need to focus attention on paragraph structure, word choice, or sentence expansion. During the writing, model processes needed by your students. Have a small whiteboard available, for example, to demonstrate to students how to say a word slowly and write sounds heard into "sound boxes" (Clay, 2006) before writing a phonetically regular word into the text for them. For older students, begin with a root word and demonstrate how to add prefixes or suffixes to a new word. Demonstrate in-the-moment revision during shared writing as necessary to construct a strong draft. Reread the text to students from time to time to discuss what needs to be written next or to monitor whether or not the text conveys information clearly. Add a word using a caret, for example, or delete unneeded text. Read the completed text to students. Take a few minutes to have students orally summarize what has been learned about writing during this session. Post the text in an accessible spot in the classroom, and provide opportunities for students to read or use the text multiple times over the next several days or weeks

89 Benefits of Shared Writing
Reinforces and supports reading as well as writing Makes is possible for all students to participate Encourages close examination of texts, words, and options of authors Demonstrates the conventions of writing, spelling, punctuations and grammar Focuses on composing and leaves transcribing to the teacher Helps build motivation and increases confidence in struggling readers Step towards independent writing Regie Routman

90 Interactive Writing … is a collaborative writing experience for beginning writers in which the teacher guides students in the group- writing of a large-print text. Students participate in the composition and construction of the text by sharing the pen, physically and figuratively, with the teacher. The composition is read and reread by the group to make the reading and writing connection. Mostly used at K-1

91 Interactive Writing Process
Teacher sets the purpose for the interactive writing lesson. Teacher and students brainstorm ideas together. Teacher elicits students ideas. Teacher and students compose the text by “sharing” the pen. Teacher models the writing process, specific element of writing, and revising with the students. Class reads aloud writing together and revisits the text as it is posted in the room.

92 Implement your own informational (science/social studies) writing activity
Start by choosing a shared experience and then continue on with the following steps. Do the activity together. Ask questions to elicit responses about the information that the children have learned. For young children, you might simply have them tell you something new that they have learned. For older children, it is appropriate to help them organize what they learned into main ideas. Write the children’s responses. Read the responses with the children to make sure that they say what you all want them to. Work together to make any changes needed.

93 How can I use Interactive Writing?
Writers need a purpose for writing and an audience. Use the learning experiences of the students to establish a purpose and audience to create written text collaboratively. Create a shopping list. Compose a group story. Create a sign. Write a letter. Compose a set of directions. Respond to a survey question. Summarize or extend a story read in guided reading. Summarize or extend a story that has been read aloud. Label art or a classroom item. Record information from an experiment. Record information from a class study or research.

94 Graffiti Wall/Board Read the poem: Learning Bricks
Use one section of the paper and respond (in any format) to your thoughts, reflections, opinions, beliefs, questions, etc. that you have after reading the poem You may use illustrations, words, sentences, paragraphs, poetry, etc. to reflect- be creative with your space

95 Guided Writing …is a time when the teacher is
focused tightly on a small group of learners. During this small group time, the teacher can reteach minilessons shared with the whole class and give an opportunity for the writers to engage with the minilesson concepts while the teacher is close by to guide and support. This small group time might be an opportunity to stretch and expand the writing skills of gifted students, to reteach key writing skills for struggling students, or to demonstrate an informational text feature a group of students would find helpful in their content writing. As in guided reading, this time is built upon learner needs. Groups are small, flexible and short term. Guided Writing Often = second day of guided reading group time

96 Getting Started with Guided Writing
Prior to beginning guided writing, train your students to form peer critique groups. They can help each other while you work with a small group. Do not allow students to interrupt your lesson unless it is a true emergency.

97 Guided Writing as an Extension of Guided Reading
Guided writing fits naturally as an extension of a guided reading lesson, taking students into the world of the writer in response to their reading. Ask students to revisit their guided reading selection and think with the eyes of an informational author. What do we notice about this author’s word choice, use of bullets in a list, use of captions, or conventions such as bold face headings. How did these help us as readers? How might we use those tools in our own informational writing? The next step would be for students to begin writing or revising their own informational piece. Linda Hoyt

98 Guided Writing in Content Areas
Math, science, and social studies all offer rich opportunities to gather small guided writing groups for explicit instruction and support on writing in the content areas. Even a brief session can heighten learner awareness and bring increased skill to their written communications. Linda Hoyt

99 …is the component that affords students an opportunity to write about self-selected topics. They apply skills and strategies that are learned during shared writing, interactive writing, guided writing, and word study. The teacher uses this time to confer individually with students to assess their strengths and needs. Independent Writing

100 Independent Writing Independent writing should occur daily!
Can be part of your guided reading stations ex. Work on Writing within Daily 5 structure Students can: Respond to text Journal Work on drafts Publish work

101 Sample Schedules

102 100 min. Insert daily five graphic
Based on Brain research from Dr. Ken Wesson, the age of the child indicates the number of minutes they can maintain stamina in whole class and small group lessons. Take a minute to reflect on your teaching time. Does it reflect this research? What structure changes may be necessary to align your instructional time to the brain research?

103 90 min.

104 120 min.


106 Small group instruction area Large group instruction area
Word Wall Key Features: Small group instruction area Large group instruction area Collaborative groups Literature Circles (optional) Literacy stations Print rich environment: - active word wall - organized classroom library - leveled readers - big books - word work So what does a balanced literacy classroom look like? What are some of the key features that you notice about the classroom design in relationship to a balanced literacy classroom? Any obstacles that you might envision from teachers’ point of view?

107 Closing Thoughts…

108 Assessment and evaluation
Assessment of student performance and instructional practices should be done on an ongoing basis. Student progress should be monitored through: running records, miscue analysis (mCLASS) anecdotal records skill and strategy checklists reading and writing inventories student work samples audio or videotapes of student performance student self-assessments other formal or informal

109 Literacy instruction should be based on assessment information
Literacy instruction should be based on assessment information. It informs good teaching and documents individual learning throughout the year. Literacy lessons are best taught every day during blocks of uninterrupted time. These lessons should include intensive amounts of reading and writing. Instruction should include attention to letters and words and how they work. Phonics and word study is incorporated daily.

110 “A balanced literacy approach focuses on two essential areas: reading and writing. This approach engages children in a variety of authentic reading and writing experiences… It benefits students in many ways: students develop a broad range of reading and writing abilities; both focused instruction and independent work are valued so there is a better chance to meet the needs of a diverse group of students; students learn basic information and skills but they also develop strategies that will help them apply their knowledge in a variety of reading and writing contexts; there is an emphasis on comprehension, which is the goal of all reading.” Pinnell, 2000



113 Resources: Button, K., M. Johnson, & P. Furgerson. Interactive Writing in a Primary Classroom. The Reading Teacher 49, 6: Dorn, Linda; French, Cathy; & Jones, Tammy. Apprenticeship in Literacy: Transitions Across Reading and Writing. York, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers, 1998. Fountas, Irene C. Voices on Word Matters. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1999. Fountas, Irene C. & Pinnell, Gay Su. Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1996. McCarrier, Andrea; Pinnell, Gay Su; & Fountas, Irene C. Interactive Writing: How Language and Literacy Come Together, K-2. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000.

114 Contact Information: Lora Drum, Curriculum Specialist Balls Creek Elementary, Office Mia Johnson, Curriculum Specialist Murray Elementary, Office

115 Catawba County ELA Resources
Main CCS webpage: Click for dropdown menu: Inside CCS (tab- far left side) Select and click Elementary Education Select and Click on Boxes

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