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© ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY ALTERNATIVE WEED CONTROL IN ARABLE CROPS France MODULE.

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Presentation on theme: "© ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY ALTERNATIVE WEED CONTROL IN ARABLE CROPS France MODULE."— Presentation transcript:

1 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY ALTERNATIVE WEED CONTROL IN ARABLE CROPS France MODULE C19

2 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Aims of weed mechanical or mixt control : Sustainable use of herbicides Background: reduction of pesticides in France → Grenelle Environment → Basin supply catchment Reducing the cost of herbicides use → 15-25% of operating expenses Sustainable herbicide The technical "plus" → Effect on soil warming → Interest in the positioning of fertilizers → Enable mineralization

3 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Weed control into the rotation: Agronomic Principles –Diversifying crops –Take advantage of intercropping to reduce the seed bank –Use tillage wisely –Stagger planting dates –Using the factor “crop competition” By combining these principles the maximum weed control will be facilitated, optimized the use of herbicides and the risk of emergence of resistance limited

4 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Comparison of two weed management  Region Burgundy (France) Wheat Weeds: Alopecurus, Bromus, Veronica, Viola, Galium 3LTilleringEar at 1cm Beginning of Stem elongation 1 Node 2 to 3 stale seedbed Shifting the sowing date from the 20th of october 2 tillages T2 Propoxycarbazone + florasulam No possibility of mechanical control with winter weather conditions Density +10% Sowing MIXT CHEMICAL From 1st of october T1 Isoproturon + dff + ioxynil + bromoxynil T2 Mesosulfuron Iodosulfuron + Propoxycarbazone + florasulame

5 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Comparison of two weed management  Region Burgundy (France) Rosette 1 stale seed-bed From early september Sowing MIXT CHEMICAL From mid-august T1 Napropamid Clomazone Dimetachlor + quinmerac métazachlor Oil-seed rape Weeds :Alopecurus, Bromus, Matricaria, Stellaria,Galium, (Geranium) Cotyledon 1L4L Hoeing T2 Propyzamid T1 Napropamid Clomazone Dimetachlor On 1/3 of the soil T2 Propyzamid

6 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Comparison of two weed management  Region Burgundy (France) Semis MIXT CHEMICAL Maize Weeds : Summer grasses, Chenopodium, Amaranthus, Solanum nigrum 2 L Hoeing Emergence4 L5-6 L8 L Cover- cropping And Tillage T1 Acetochlore + dichlormid T1 Mesotrione + s-métolachlor On the sowing row

7 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Exemples d’itinéraire technique  Region Burgundy (France) Sowing MIXT CHEMICAL Sunflower Weeds : Summer grasses, Chenopodium, Amaranthus, Solanum nigrum Hoeing Cover- cropping and Tillage T1 S-métolachlor T1 Flurochloridone on the sowing row Emergence4 L T2 Flurochloridone

8 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Comparison of two weed management  Region Burgundy (France) Sowing MIXT CHEMICAL T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 Phenmedipham desmedipham Ethofumesat Metamitron Lenacil Sugar-beet Weeds : Chenopodium, Apiaceae, Sonchus, Cirsium, Mercurialis, CRape volunteers, Matricairia, Amaranthus … Cotyledon 1L4L Hoeing 2 passages T5 Grass killer herbicide (if needed) 40% rate To control all the weeds emergences T1 + T2 Phenmedipham desmedipham Ethofumesat Metamitron Lenacil To control only the earlier weeds emergencues T3 Grass killer herbicide (if needed) 40% rate Total or localised spray

9 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Pesticides use reduction TFI = Treatment Frequency Index = number of registrared rates sprayed in a field ChemicalMixt Wheat TFI Herbicide Herbicide - 51% Oil-seed rape Herbicide - 45%  Treatment Frequency Index 2,17 1,33 1,77 2,77 0,96 Maize 1,27 0,33 Herbicide - 73% Sunflower 1,67 0,33 Herbicide - 80% ChemicalMixtChemicalMixtChemicalMixt

10 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Agricultural feasibility Loamy Clayey Capped Stony Rotative hoe Weed harrowHoeing machine Stage Grasses Broadleaves EM2L4L6LEM2L4L6LEM2L4L6L Stage Selectiviy EM <2L 4L6LEM <2L 4L6LEM <2L 4L6L Well adaptedAdaptedDangerousNo SOIL WEEDS CROP

11 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Economical viability WHEATMAIZE ChemicalMixtChemicalMixt Gross margin (€/ha) (Total – Operating expenses) Net margin (€/ha) (Gross margin – Mechanization expenses) Comparison of operating expenses In chemical or mixt management ChemicalMixtChemicalMixt Operating expenses (€/ha) Regulators Insecticides Herbicides Fongicides Fertilization Seeds Intercropping - 43 € - 37 € WHEATMAIZE Mechanization expenses In chemical or mixt management ChemicalMixtChemicalMixt Mechanization expenses (€/ha) Spraying and fertilization Chemical weed control Mechanical weed control Sowing Intercropping + 26 € + 8 € WHEATMAIZE

12 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Other inovative techniques Experimental Direct Drilling Live Mulch Mixt crops Geraniums in early winter (weeds/m²) Deep cultivating Deep + sup cultivating Direct drilling

13 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Conclusion: Response to general principles of IPM Environment: Reduced quantities of herbicides (Part 5) Agronomy Resistance management (part 7) Use of alternative methods (part 4) Combination with preventive methods (part 1) Terms of Success: technical knowledge Economy Margins comparable between chemical and mixt management More advantages if mechanization investment (equipement with large width, gps,...) More manpower is sometimes needed


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