Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

© ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY IPM in arable crop rotations Including examples from ENDURE.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "© ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY IPM in arable crop rotations Including examples from ENDURE."— Presentation transcript:

1 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY IPM in arable crop rotations Including examples from ENDURE RA2.6 MODULE C10

2 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Context: CountrySiteSoilClimateRegional land-use context DenmarkMain pig- producing farms in Denmark Both clay and sand Maritime climate Predominantly husbandry UKMain predominantly arable area of England Clay and clay- loam Maritime climate Predominantly arable

3 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Current rotations: Current crop protection strategy: pesticides and cultural control (e.g. cultivations, sowing date, crop rotation) Main pest risks: Weeds: Grasses especially black grass (resistance in the UK, observed in DK), bromes (all crops) (in the UK) Fungal diseases: especially Septoria, yellow rust (winter wheat), Phoma, light leaf spot (In the UK), Sclerotinia (winter oilseed rape). Invertebrate pests: aphids / virus (winter wheat/oilseed rape); flea beetle and pollen beetle (resistance) (oilseed rape); slugs Pigeons in the UK(oilseed rape) Expected yield: national average or above CountryYear 1Year 2Year 3Year 4 UKWinter wheatWinter wheat/winter barley Winter oilseed rape DKWinter barleyWinter oilseed rapeWinter wheat These current systems do not necessarily reflect the systems of all farms in each country, but are important examples.

4 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Main considerations for alternative rotations Grass weed management (in UK: black grass containment) disease control in WOSR - more years between crops pesticide targeting and stewardship conservation biological control spreading the workload - maintaining yield! (In DK especially for fodder, as it is expensive to buy in extra)

5 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Suggestions for alternative rotations Effect of crop sequence change 1 Effect of crop sequence plus changed practices 1 Rotation no. SystemNo. years Year 1Year 2Year 3Year 4Year 5Mean TFI p.a. % change in TFI p.a. Mean TFI p.a.% Reduction in TFI p.a. UK -Current3 WW WOSR 6.2 IAS4 WWS BeansWWWOSR IIAS5 WWS BeansWWS WheatWOSR IIAS5 WWS BeansWWS BarleyWOSR DK -Current4 WBWOSRWW 2,5 IAS5 WBWOSRWW SB+CC WW: Winter wheat, WB: Winter Barley, SB: Spring Barley WOSR: Winter Oilseed Rape, CC: Catch Crop 1 Based on expert judgements

6 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY System tools to reduce pesticide use: Pesticide targeting and resistance management: ensure effective use of pesticides strictly according to need, using economic thresholds and decision support systems. Crop sequence: Introduction of spring crops and greater taxonomic variety of cropping for pest management particularly containment of grass weeds (in UK: especially black grass). Lengthening the rotation: more years between OSR crops to help disease control Tillage: Minimise tillage and chop straw wherever possible to conserve natural enemies and energy Consider ploughing for grass weed management before a second cereal Before spring crops plough if necessary in spring (in autumn on heavy land) to create seedbed and for weed control. Conservation biological control IPM means that all plant protection measures have to be used wisely, otherwise problems like resistance may develop rapidly

7 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Other tools for different pest groups: Weed management: Use higher seed rates and cultivars with strong competitiveness where weeds are problematic Spot mapping and targeting of weeds Disease management: Use of resistant cultivars Invertebrate pest management: Conservation biological control –E.g. Beetle banks, wild flower margins, hedges, etc. Use of resistant cultivars Plough for slug control

8 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Maize Based Cropping System: The Case in Hungary Driving forces: market demand, highly profitable, soil conditions, farm practices; Agri-Environmental Measures (Integrated Production): since 2004, but was remold in 2009 continuous maize maximum in 3 consecutive years (cross compliance) BUT if WCR larval damage occurs, maize field should be rotated share of winter wheat, grain maize and sunflower max. 60 % share of leguminous crops should reach 10% (whole farm, given year) How to manage of WCR (western corn rootworm) in continuous maize ration of continuous and first year maize is crucial Maize Based Cropping Systems in Central and Eastern Europe

9 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY The effect of a varied crop rotation: Plants/m 2 Crop rotation with 50 % cerealsCrop rotation with 75 % cereals No weed control With weed control Broadleaved weeds Apera spica-venti German experiments Grass weed case: The crop rotation:

10 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Grass weed case: Chemical weed control Choose the right product for the right job! Use as little as possible but as much as needed Use Decision Support Systems where available, e.g. Crop Protection online: demo&subjectid=1&language=en It is a challenge to treat fields individually. Where large scale farming is an important parameter, it may e.g. be relevant to think about a basic- and advanced treatment –Divide e.g. the fields in groups according to problem Consider margin and patch spraying in larger scale

11 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Grass weed case: Prevention of resistance Change between products with different modes of action Avoid using Sulfunylurea-products more than once every growing season Change between modes of action This wheat field was in the spring treated with 2 ALS- inhibiting herbicides: 110 g Broadway (florasulam+pyroxulam) and app. 0.1 l Iodosulfuron. Lolium perenne is still growing almost unaffected, which leads to a suspicion of resistance, it has however not been confirmed. This wheat field was in the spring treated with 2 ALS- inhibiting herbicides: 110 g Broadway (florasulam+pyroxulam) and app. 0.1 l Iodosulfuron. Lolium perenne is still growing almost unaffected, which leads to a suspicion of resistance, it has however not been confirmed.

12 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Grass weed case: Dispersal of weed seeds Through machinery –As the farms grow bigger, the machinery has to cover larger areas, and seeds are very likely to be spread Therefore: remember proper hygiene –This means:  Harvest the infested fields last, whenever possible  Clean machinery when leaving an infested field  Keep a stable field margin with perennial herbs, to avoid weed infestations to spread from here

13 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Grass weed case: Evaluation of the effort Before harvest, make a field walk to: –Follow up on the crop protection performed through the season –Plan the strategy for the next season –Make/update the weed map A good result starts with proper planning! Weed map:

14 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Without any IPM 90 % maize 10% winter wheat IPM Program 60 % maize 20% winter wheat 20 % sunflower Net profit of a farm (100 ha) in $ (Hungary, 2004) Case: Maize Based Cropping Systems

15 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY WCR adults captured in soybean, winter wheat, sunflower and maize WCR larvae in subsequent year’s maize after the pre- crops listed before WCR BIOLOGY IN CONTEXT OF CROP ROTATION Feeding and oviposition by females in maize crop stand, successful larval development in subsequent year maize only Case of Western Corn Rootworm

16 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Case of Western Corn Rootworm 1st year2nd year 1. MONITORING PROCESS OF THE DECISION ON CROP ROTATION 2. DECISION - risk estimation based on the results of the monitoring; - considering other factors (economic, environmental, cultivation, etc.)

17 © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY Conclusion: Response to general principles of IPM : Environment: –Reduced quantities of herbicides: general principle 6 Agronomy: –Crop rotation: general principle 1 –Choice of products: general principle 5 –Resistance management: general principle 7 –Evaluation, weed map etc.: general principle 8 For further information: See the other Training Guide-presentations


Download ppt "© ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY © ENDURE, February 2007 FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY IPM in arable crop rotations Including examples from ENDURE."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google