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ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 1 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical.

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Presentation on theme: "ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 1 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 1 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical & Mechanical Engineer Engineering 22 OrthroGraphic View Dwgs-1

2 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 2 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Learning Goals  How to Unfold the “Glass” Box to draw Perpendicular Projection (OrthoGraphic) Views  Determine the Minimum No. of Views Needed to Fully Describe an Object  Properly Place Views Relative to Each Other  Which Views show Which Combination of the Object’s H, W, & D

3 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 3 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Learning Goals cont  Understand the Criteria for Selecting the CENTRAL View  Apply the Guidelines for the Proper Use of Hidden Lines  Determine When Lines/Shapes are in TRUE Length/Shape as opposed to FOREshortened  Construct MultiView Orthographic Projection Drawings

4 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 4 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics OrthoGraphic View Drawing  All Objects Are Three Dimensional (3-D) Height, Width, and Depth  Drawings are done on a 2-D surface  Multiview Sketching (Orthographic Projection) Represents A 3-D Object With A Series Of 2-D Views Best Understood By Technical People In Contrast To “Pictorials” Which Show Three Dimensions In A Single View

5 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 5 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Projection Planes Versus Views  Projection planes: Objects are Formed From Parallel “Sight Lines” Projected Perpendicularly Onto A Projection Plane Horizontal, Frontal, Profile Each Projection Plane Is Perpendicular To the Adjacent Projection Planes Lines/Features Parallel to Proj Plane are TRUE Length/Size

6 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 6 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Principle Views  The Object Is Rotated 90° About The Horizontal Or Vertical Axis To Yield the Six Principle Views Top, Bottom, Front, Rear, Left & Right Side  Common views: Top Front Right Side

7 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 7 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics View Selection  Only Use The Views That Are Needed To Represent The Object One view drawings –Stamped part: Specify uniform thickness with a note Two view drawings  A Cylindrical Part Three view drawings –Usually Sufficient For All Other Objects –Top, Front, And Right-Side Views

8 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 8 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics General Guidelines  The Most DESCRIPTIVE View Should Be The FRONT, or CENTRAL, View  Views MUST Be ALIGNED Top View ABOVE Front View Right-Side View To The RIGHT Of Front View  Hidden lines Represented With Dashed Lines Precedence of lines (Visible, Hidden, Center) Views Should Be Selected To MINIMIZE The Use Of HIDDEN LINES

9 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 9 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Parallel Projection  Preserves true relationship between features Parallel lines are drawn parallel The geometry is generally not distorted  Parallel projectors Light from a point-source at an  -distance

10 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 10 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics The Glass Box  Projection Planes Placed Parallel to the Principle Faces of an Object Form a Glass Box What An Observer Would See From the OUTSIDE Looking IN

11 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 11 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Unfolding The Glass Box  Hinge the Four Intersections on The Frontal Plane And “Flatten Out” the Box Maintains the TRUE-Length Of Lines Parallel to the Viewing Planes The 5 Hinge Lines are Known as FOLDING Lines

12 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 12 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics The Unfolded Glass Box

13 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 13 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Common Dimensions  Every 3-D Object Can Be Described By its Height, Width, and Depth  The Views from the Glass Box Share These Dimensions in This Form

14 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 14 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Central View = Front View  Criteria for Selecting Central View Front View Shows The Shape Of The Object MOST Clearly Chose Front View So That It Has A Large Number Of Normal (  ) Surfaces Minimize Hidden Lines Show The Object In A Usual Or Operating Position –i.e., Do NOT show the Object “UpSide Down”

15 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 15 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics The Primary Views

16 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 16 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Producing a Multiview Drawing  Select Front View As Before  Align View Bounding Boxes i.e., Block-In Views Approx. Center on Drawing Border  Draw Features Using Instruments/CAD True Shapes Remain Project Between Views Use 45° “Mitre” Lines to Xfer Depth Dims Label Vertices if Needed

17 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 17 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Align Bounding Boxes WIDTH HEIGHT DEPTH FRONT TOP RIGHT Miter line at 45°

18 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 18 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Construction Lines to Xfer Dims FRONT TOP RIGHT Use 45° Miter Line to Transfer Dims Between Top & Side View

19 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 19 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Label Vertices AB C A B C AB C,AB C  An Intermediate Step to Aid Construction  Only If needed to Clarify Positions For the Designer

20 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 20 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Views FULLY Aligned Very FEW Hidden Lines

21 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 21 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics True Length Vs. Foreshortened  Only Lines/Planes that Are PARALLEL to the Projection Plane are (LoS  Plane) show in TRUE LENGTH/SHAPE Others are ForeShortened in the View

22 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 22 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Hidden Line Usage  Hidden Lines can Greatly-CLARIFY or Greatly-CONFUSE a Drawing View Visible Lines are Usually Easy –Exceptions = Fillets & Rounded Edges Creating Useful Hidden Lines Requires –Judgment –Adherence to Convention

23 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 23 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Draw Hidden Lines  Dashes are 2X to 3X Longer Than Spaces.e.g.; Dashes 1/8” (3mm) Long, Spaces 1/16” (1.5mm) Long.  Should Intersect Neatly Except Where A Line Of A Different Linetype Would Appear To Be Extended  “Jump” Visible Lines That They Cross  Closely Spaced Parallel Hidden Lines Are Drawn With The Dashes STAGGERED if Possible

24 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 24 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Conventions for Hidden Lines  Hidden lines should join neatly to form “T” or “L” shaped inter- sections.  Hidden lines should jump visible lines that they do not intersect.  It is permissible for a hidden line to cross a visible line.  Hidden lines should join neatly with visible lines except when it causes a visible line to be extended. When two different lines join to form a single line, leave a gap on the less important line.

25 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 25 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics More Hidden Line Conventions  Stagger the dashes on closely spaced parallel hidden lines.  Hidden line dashes should intersect neatly to from clear corners, as in the bottom of this drilled hole.  Intersecting hidden lines should form neat corners, as in this countersunk hole.

26 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 26 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Curved Hidden Lines  Curved hidden lines should not extend a visible curve in the same direction. Leave a gap on the hidden line so that you can easily see where the visible line ends.  Curved hidden lines dashes should extend to the point of tangency. Don’t end with a gap at the point of tangency. It makes it hard to see the location.

27 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 27 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Hidden Lines  Hidden Lines Can be Made A number of ways in AutoCAD 1.Draw Line in a LAYER with Hidden Form 2.Draw a SOLID Line, then CHANGE to a Hidden LAYER (Described Last Lecture) 3.Draw a SOLID Line, then CHANGE to a Hidden LINETYPE using PROPERTIES ToolBar 4.Draw a SOLID Line, then CHANGE to a Hidden LINETYPE using PROPERTIES Side-Menu

28 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 28 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Chg Hidden-Line by ToolBar  Want 1.Select Line to Light-Up Handles 2.Click on “Layer Control” Box to PullDown LineTypes Menu 3.Select HIDDEN 4.Deactivate Grips by Hitting Esc

29 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 29 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Chg Hid-Ln by Properties Menu  Want 1.Select Line to Light-Up Handles 2.Activate the Properties Side Menus by one of Rt-Click Line or Grips to Activate the Context PullDown Menu –Select properties Double-Click an END Grip

30 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 30 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Chg Hid-Ln by Properties Menu 3.On Properties Side Menu Activate the LineType PullDown 4.Select Hidden and Deactivate Grip by Hitting Esc  NOTE The Prop-ToolBar or Prop-Menu Can also Change Line Color, and Thickness

31 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 31 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Visualization: Ortho → 3D  For a Practicing Engineer with Detail- Design Assistance, READING Projection Drawings Is as Important as MAKING them  The Practicing Engineer Must be Able to Think in 3-D Using 2-D Projections i.e., To Visualize a 3-D Object Given Front, Top and Side Views This is Inverse of Creating Views from the 3-D Object

32 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 32 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Visualization Aids  Using Labels on Multiview Drawings 1 3 S 3 1 S S Label surfaces; e.g., Label vertices; e.g., 1,3

33 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 33 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Visualization Continued  Recognize Similar Shapes in Different Views Equal number of sides Parallel edges  Best Way to “Read” Engineering Drawings is the “Writing” of Great Numbers of them

34 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 34 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Eliminate Unnecessary Views  Show Only The Views Needed Drawing To Fully Define The Shape Of The Object  Choose The Views Which Show The Shapes Of The Features Most Clearly  The Right Side View Is Preferred To The Left Side View If They Show The Object Equally Well  The Top View Is Preferred To The Bottom View If They Show The Object Equally Well  Showing Only The Necessary Views Saves Time, Makes The Drawing Less Cluttered, And Makes It Easier To Interpret

35 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 35 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics All Done for Today Try 0.7mm MechPencil w/ HB or B Lead

36 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 36 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical & Mechanical Engineer Engr/Math/Physics 25 Appendix 

37 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 37 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Recall Std Lines  Line Patterns Communicate What The Line Represents In The Drawing  Line Patterns Tell You Information Such As Whether The Line Is Hidden, Visible, Or A Centerline  Line Precedence: Visible → Hidden → Center Visible line Hidden line Hatching Centerline Dimension Extension Leader Cutting Plane Viewing Plane Short break Long break Phantom Stitch Chain

38 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 38 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics Hidden Line Example Ø2Ø Hx2D Groove, Ctr’d  Block-In sizes FView → 15W x 7H TView → 15W x 6D RView → 7H x 6D

39 ENGR-22_Lec-08_Ortho_View-1.ppt 39 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering 22 – Engineering Design Graphics OrthoGraphic View Sketching 1.Block-In Views Using Approximately True-Length Dimensions  Engr-Comp-Pad Grid is Useful for Scaling 2.Block-In all Details Such as Corners, Notches, Circles, etc. 3.Dim All Construction Lines with Eraser 4.Darken All Final Lines to Emphasize Object in All Views


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