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Section 2 Drafting Techniques and Skills Chapter 8 Multiview Drawings.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 2 Drafting Techniques and Skills Chapter 8 Multiview Drawings."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Section 2 Drafting Techniques and Skills Chapter 8 Multiview Drawings

3 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Explain the principles of orthographic projection. Identify the number and types of views needed to make a multiview drawing. Use orthographic projection to create multiview drawings. Explain the differences between third-angle projection and first-angle projection.

4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Multiview Drawing Used to describe three-dimensional objects in two dimensions. Normally includes three views. Standard arrangement of views used. Created with instruments in manual drafting. Created with drawing commands in CAD.

5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Standard Arrangement of Views

6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Orthographic Projection Synonymous with “multiview drawing.” Views obtained by projecting lines of sight (or projectors) to projection plane. Glass box helpful in visualizing views.

7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Orthographic Projection (Cont.)

8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glass Box

9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Projection Technique Involves three principal planes (or coordinate planes) oriented at right angles.principal planes Front view shown in frontal plane.frontal plane Top view shown on horizontal plane.horizontal plane Side view shown on profile plane.profile plane

10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Principal Planes of Projection Front view also called front elevation. Top view also called plan view. Side view also called end view, side elevation, or end elevation.

11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Object Views Six views possible for any given object. Height shown in front, side, and rear views. Width shown in top, front, bottom, and rear views. Depth shown in top, side, and bottom views.

12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Object Views (Cont.)

13 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Projecting Elements Between Views Miter line drawn at 45° to project measurements. Miter line meets projection planes at point between views. Circles and arcs located initially in views where they appear naturally.

14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Projecting Elements Between Views (Cont.)

15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Projecting Points To locate point, measure from projection planes.point Measure in three directions (width, depth, and height). Points for major features determine other point locations and layout of views.

16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Drawing Layout

17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Projecting Lines Process used to represent intersections, edges, and surface limits. Straight line connects two points. Curved line used for arc and curve forms.

18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Features Represented by Lines

19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Types of Straight Lines Horizontal lines Vertical lines Inclined lines Oblique lines

20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Horizontal Lines Parallel to horizontal plane and one other plane. Perpendicular to third plane. Shown true length in two planes.

21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Vertical Lines Parallel to frontal and profile planes. Perpendicular to horizontal plane. Shown true length in frontal and profile planes.

22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Inclined Lines Parallel to one projection plane. Inclined and foreshortened in other two planes.foreshortened

23 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Oblique Lines Neither parallel nor perpendicular to any projection planes. Foreshortened in all three planes.

24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Projecting Surfaces Plane surfaces and curved surfaces most typical for machine parts. May be done by locating endpoints, plotting series of points, or creating special views.

25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Types of Surfaces Horizontal surfaces Vertical surfaces Inclined surfaces Oblique surfaces

26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Single-Curve and Double-Curve Surfaces

27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Warped Surfaces

28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Projecting Angles True size projected when plane is parallel to a projection plane. Foreshortening occurs when plane is inclined or oblique. Right angles on inclined planes project true size on two planes.

29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Projecting Angles (Cont.)

30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Selecting Views Make front view most descriptive. Identify most representative contour or shape. Identify most natural or functioning position. Arrange views to minimize hidden lines. Consider space requirements. Top and front view typical for long, narrow objects. Front and side view typical for short, broad objects.

31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Selecting Views (Cont.) Choose between two equally important views unless space or other factors prohibit. Choose right-side view over left-side view. Choose top view over bottom view.

32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Selecting Views (Cont.) Use only sufficient number of views. One view typically suitable for objects made from thin stock. Two views normally used for cylindrical objects. Three or more views may be required for more complex objects.

33 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Selecting Views (Cont.)

34 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Spacing Views on a Drawing Calculate combined width of front and side views. Add approximately 1  for spacing between views. Divide amount of space remaining between ends of drawing area. Determine vertical spacing in similar manner.

35 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Spacing Views on a Drawing (Cont.)

36 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Conventions for Hidden LinesHidden Lines

37 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Order of Visibility for Coinciding Lines 1.Visible lines 2.Hidden lines 3.Cutting-plane lines 4.Centerlines 5.Break lines 6.Dimension and extension lines 7.Section lines

38 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Removed Views Shown enlarged to clarify detail. Placed at convenient location. Identified in appropriate manner.

39 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Partial Views Typically used for symmetrical parts. Half views Views with break lines Partial side views

40 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Applications for Conventional Drafting Practices Fillets and rounds Runouts Right-hand and left-hand parts Cylinder intersections Radial features Alternate positions Repeated details

41 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. FilletFillet and Round Drawing PracticesRound

42 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. RunoutRunout Drawing Practices Used for arms, spokes, and webs. Arc should have same radius as fillet or round.

43 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Drawing Right-Hand and Left-Hand Parts Conventional practice used when parts are not interchangeable. View omitted to save time. Note used to indicate information.

44 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Conventional Practices for Intersections

45 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Conventional Practices for Radial Features

46 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Drawing Parts in Alternate Positions Conventional practice used to show limits and clearance. Phantom lines show extents of movement.

47 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Drawing Repeated Details Conventional practice used for common items. Phantom lines indicate missing features.

48 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Orthographic Projection Methods First-angle projection Third-angle projection

49 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Third-Angle Projection Frontal plane located between viewer and object. Views projected forward to frontal plane from third quadrant. Views appear in natural positions. Used in United States and Canada.

50 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Third-Angle Projection (Cont.)

51 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. First-Angle Projection Frontal plane located on far side of object from viewer. Views projected to rear from first quadrant. View arrangement different from third- angle projection. Used in European countries.

52 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. First-Angle Projection (Cont.)

53 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Drawing Identification Symbols

54 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Visualizing a Three-Dimensional Object from a Multiview Drawing 1.Break views down mentally into geometric shapes. 2.Consider possibilities for each shape. 3.Identify hidden features and object centers. 4.Compare shapes and dimensions in different views. 5.Make freehand sketch.

55 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Visualizing a Three-Dimensional Object from a Multiview Drawing (Cont.)

56 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Laying Out a Drawing Same principles apply whether drawing manually or using CAD. Manual drawings must have good line quality and accuracy. CAD drawings should be made accurately and efficiently.

57 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 57 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lay Out a Multiview Drawing 1.Select appropriate sheet size and scale. 2.Draw light lines to “block in” views. 3.Locate arcs and circles before lines. 4.Omit hidden lines, centerlines, and dimension lines during layout. 5.Check for missing items. 6.Remove unnecessary construction lines. 7.Darken lines in appropriate order. 8.Letter notes and title block. 9.Check drawing for accuracy and appearance.

58 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Create a Multiview Drawing 1.Define drawing settings and layers or use template. 2.Use Xline command and other commands needed to “block in” views. 3.Draw object lines in each view using drawing commands. 4.Draw hidden lines and centerlines. 5.Draw filleted and chamfered features. 6.Use Text command to create text objects. 7.Freeze layers as needed. 8.Check drawing for accuracy and appearance.

59 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 1.In orthographic projection, the projection on the profile plane is called the _____ view. A. top B. front C. plan D. side

60 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 60 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 2. Which of the following is not a principal projection plane? A. Frontal B. Profile C. Vertical D. Horizontal C. Vertical

61 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 61 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 3.The _____ box is a helpful drafting aid used to develop skill in visualizing views. glass

62 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 62 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 4.In the standard arrangement of views, the top view appears above the _____ view. front

63 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 63 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 5.How many views are typically sufficient for a multiview drawing? A. Three B. Four C. Five D. Six A. Three

64 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 64 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 6._____ lines are parallel to one plane of projection and inclined in the other two planes. A. Oblique B. Inclined C. Horizontal D. Vertical B. Inclined

65 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 65 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 7._____ surfaces appear true size in the top view. A. Oblique B. Inclined C. Horizontal D. Vertical C. Horizontal

66 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 66 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 8.The _____ view should be the most representative of the shape of the object. A. top B. front C. side D. end B. front

67 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 67 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 9.Most drawings made in the United States use _____ projection. A. first-angle B. second-angle C. third-angle D. fourth-angle C. third-angle

68 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 68 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 10.In _____-angle projection, the frontal projection plane is on the far side of the object from the viewer. first

69 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 69 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary Fillet A small, rounded, internal corner. Foreshortened Drawn shorter than true length. Frontal plane The principal projection plane projecting the front view in orthographic projection.

70 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 70 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary Hidden lines Thin lines made up of short evenly spaced dashes, used to indicate edges, surfaces, and corners of an object that are concealed from the view of the observer. Horizontal plane The principal projection plane projecting the top view in orthographic projection.

71 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 71 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary Multiview drawing A projection drawing that incorporates two or more views of a part or assembly on one drawing. Orthographic projection A system of drawing in which a projection of an object is formed on a picture plane by perpendicular projectors from the object to the picture plane.

72 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 72 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary Plan view The top view of an object. Point Something having position, but not extension. It has location in space, but no length, depth, or height.

73 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 73 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary Principal planes The three primary planes (frontal, horizontal, and profile) used to project views in orthographic projection. Profile plane The principal projection plane projecting the side view (or “end” view) in orthographic projection.

74 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 74 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary Round A small, rounded, external corner. Runout The intersection of a fillet or round with another surface.


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