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MANA 3320 Prewitt © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2– 1
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–2 1 Test Your Safety Smarts Take the following quiz to evaluate your knowledge and awareness of safety and health issues. Answers are found at the end of this chapter. 1.True or False? Employers have the right to be advised by an OSHA compliance officer of the reason for a workplace inspection. 2.True or False? Employers have the legal right to have a company representative accompany the OSHA compliance officer on an inspection. 3.True or False? OSHA requires that employers provide access to employees regarding the company’s medical and exposure record. 4.What percentage of the U.S. population will be affected by back injuries? a. 23 b. 47 c. 60 d True or False? In order to correct potential health and safety problems, employers have the right to know the name of an employee who files a complaint with OSHA. 6.True or False? Employers have the legal right to request an inspection warrant before OSHA inspectors can enter a work site. 7.Which causes more accidents: unsafe acts or unsafe conditions? 8.List five areas regarding safety that should be covered during a new employee orientation. 9.True or False? Employers are required to provide employee training on OSHA standards. 10.True or False? Carpal tunnel syndrome is the fear of enclosed areas such as silos, tanks, and hallways. 11.True or False? Employers are required to allow OSHA inspectors on premises for unannounced inspections. 12.True or False? Employers have twenty-four hours to report to OSHA accidents that result in a fatality.
In 2006 there were 4.1 million injuries/illnesses among private-sector firms. Back problems cost employers $50 billion yearly in workers’ compensation costs and $50 billion in indirect costs In any year, approximately 75 million working days are lost because of on-the-job injuries. In 2006, 5,840 employees died from work accidents. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–3
General Provisions To “assure the safety and health of America’s workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach, and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvements in workplace safety and health.” Coverage of Employees All nongovernmental employers and employees; state and local government employees © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–4
OSHA Standards Apply to general industry, maritime, construction, and agriculture Cover the workplace, machinery and equipment, material, power sources, processing, protective clothing, first aid, and administrative requirements Enforcement of the Act The Secretary of Labor is authorized by the Act to conduct workplace inspections, to issue citations, and to impose penalties on employers. Inspections are conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the Department of Labor. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–5
Workplace inspections Citations and penalties On-site consultations Voluntary protection programs Training and education © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–6
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–7 First Level Second Level Third Level Fourth Level Inspection of imminent danger situations Investigation of catastrophes, fatalities, and accidents that result in hospitalization of five or more employees Investigation of valid employee complaints of alleged violations of standards or of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions Special-emphasis inspections aimed at specific high-hazard industries, occupations, or substances that are injurious to health
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–8 Other-Than- Serious SeriousSerious WillfulWillful A violation that has a direct relationship to job safety and health, but one unlikely to cause death or serious physical harm. OSHA may propose a penalty of up to $7,000 for each violation. A violation where there is substantial probability that death or serious physical harm could result and the employer knew, or should have known, of the hazard. OSHA may propose a mandatory penalty of up to $7,000 for each violation. A violation that the employer intentionally and knowingly commits, or a violation that the employer commits with plain indifference to the law. OSHA may propose penalties of up to $70,000 for each violation.
Programs that encourage employers to go beyond the minimum requirements of OSHA. Alliances Strategic Partnership Programs (SPPs) Voluntary Protection Programs (VPPs) Star, Merit, and Demonstration Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP) © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–9
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–10 2 What Are My Responsibilities under the OSH Act? If you are an employer the OSH Act covers, you must: Meet your general duty responsibility to provide a workplace free from recognized hazards; Keep workers informed about OSHA and safety and health matters with which they are involved; Comply in a responsible manner with standards, rules, and regulations issued under the OSH Act; Be familiar with mandatory OSHA standards; Make copies of standards available to employees for review upon request; Evaluate workplace conditions; Minimize or eliminate potential hazards; Make sure employees have and use safe, properly maintained tools and equipment (including appropriate personal protective equipment); Warn employees of potential hazards; Establish or update operating procedures and communicate them to employees; Provide medical examinations when required; Provide training required by OSHA standards; Report within 8 hours any accident that results in a fatality or the hospitalization of three or more employees; Keep OSHA-required records of work-related injuries and illnesses, unless otherwise specified; Post a copy of the OSHA 300—Log and Summary of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses for the prior year each year during the entire month of February unless otherwise specified;
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–11 2 What Are My Responsibilities under the OSH Act? (cont’d) If you are an employer the OSH Act covers, you must: Post, at a prominent location within the workplace, the OSHA poster (OSHA 2203) informing employees of their rights and responsibilities; Provide employees, former employees, and their representatives access to the OSHA 300 form at a reasonable time and in a reasonable manner; Provide access to employee medical records and exposure records; Cooperate with OSHA compliance officers; Not discriminate against employees who properly exercise their rights under the OSH Act; Post OSHA citations and abatement verification notices at or near the worksite involved; and Abate cited violations within the prescribed period. If you are an employee the OSH Act covers, you should: Read the OSHA poster at the job site; Comply with all applicable OSHA standards; Follow all employer safety and health rules and regulations, and wear or use prescribed protective equipment while engaged in work; Report hazardous conditions to the supervisor; Report any job-related injury or illness to the employer, and seek treatment promptly; Cooperate with the OSHA compliance officer conducting an inspection; and Exercise your rights under the OSH Act in a responsible manner.
Incidence Rate The number of injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time employees during a given year where 200,000 equals the base for 100 full-time workers who work forty hours a week, fifty weeks a year. Incidence rate = Number of injuries and illnesses × 200,000 Total hours worked by all employees during the period covered © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–12
Right-to-Know Laws Laws that require employers to advise employees about the hazardous chemicals they handle. Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) OSHA-published hazardous chemical regulations known as the HCS prescribes a system for communicating data on health risks of handling certain materials. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) Documents that contain vital information about hazardous substances. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–13
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–14 Safety Awareness Programs Safety Motivation and Knowledge Enforcement of Safety Rules Accident Investigations and Records Elements in Creating a Safe Work Environment
Promoting Safety Awareness The Key Role of the Supervisor Communicating the need to work safely. Proactive Safety Training Program First aid, defensive driving, accident prevention techniques, hazardous materials, and emergency procedures. Information Technology and Safety Awareness and Training Enhanced delivery modes Customization of training needs Regulatory instruction OSHA’s Web-based eTools © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–15
Typical Safety Rules Using proper safety devices Using proper work procedures Following good housekeeping practices Complying with accident- and injury-reporting procedures Wearing required safety clothing and equipment Avoiding carelessness and horseplay © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–16
Actively encourage employee participation in the safety program by: Jointly setting safety standards with management Participation in safety training Involvement in designing and implementing special safety training programs Involvement in establishing safety incentives and rewards Inclusion in accident investigations. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–17
Recordable Case Any occupational death, illness, or injury to be recorded in the log (OSHA Form 300). Recordable accidents include: death, days away from work, restricted work or transfer to another job, or medical treatment beyond first aid. Other problems include loss of consciousness or diagnosis of a significant injury or illness by a healthcare professional. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–18
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–19 FIGURE 12.1 Guide to Recording Cases under the Occupational Safety and Health Act
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–20 3 Job Safety and Health Protection Poster
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–21 Smoking and Tobacco Smoke Chemical Hazards Cumulative Trauma Disorders AIDS Computer Workstations Ergonomics
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–22 4 Holsum Bakery’s Workplace Smoking Policy Purpose The purpose of this policy is to address some of the problems and concerns voiced by smokers and nonsmokers. This policy does not attempt to ban smoking but restricts it to areas which are frequently shared by smokers and nonsmokers. Also, this policy attempts to comply with recently enacted laws in Arizona. Recent studies have concluded that secondary smoke can have serious health consequences. Therefore, the goal will be, to the greatest degree practicable, to obtain freedom from discomfort and irritation for those persons sensitive to tobacco smoke, while preserving a reasonable degree of freedom for those who choose to smoke. Policy It is the policy of Holsum Bakery to provide the space necessary for all of our associates to perform their functions in clean air spaces, as well as relax in our several break rooms in smoke-free environments, while at the same time providing separate space for those who choose to smoke. Procedure The designated smoking areas are the upstairs patio and the back break room. All other areas are nonsmoking. In outlying areas such as Thrift Stores and Depots, designated areas for smoking and nonsmoking will be provided. Smokers may wish to learn about our special incentive to stop smoking. Associate Services can provide the information. In order to qualify for this offer, a person must have been employed by Holsum on a full-time basis and must be here for a minimum of six (6) months before he/she can apply.
Recognizing and Controlling Health Hazards Related to Hazardous Materials and Processes Use substitutes for hazardous materials. Alter hazardous processes and engineering controls. Enclose or isolate hazardous processes. Issue clothing to protect against hazards. Improve ventilation. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–23
Problems with Video Display Terminals (VDT) Visual difficulties, muscular aches and pains, and job stress Solutions: Place the screen four to nine inches below eye level. Keep the monitor directly in front of you. Sit in an adjustable-height chair and use a copyholder that attaches to both the desk and the monitor. Use shades or blinds to reduce the computer-screen glare created by window lighting. Elbows close to body and supported. Wrist and hands in-line with forearms. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–24
Cumulative Trauma Disorders (Repetitive Motion Injuries) Injuries involving tendons of the fingers, hands, and arms that become inflamed from repeated stresses and strains resulting from jobs requiring repetitive motion of the fingers, hands, or arms. Injuries lower employee productivity, increase employer health costs, and incur workers’ compensation payments. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–25
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–26 FIGURE 12.2 Key Elements for a Successful Ergonomics Program Companies with award-winning ergonomics programs list the following as common elements of success: Provide notice and training for employees. Implement a well-publicized ergonomics policy or present ergonomic information in safety policies or training programs. Train employees, supervisors, and managers in basic workplace ergonomics. Conduct preinjury hazard assessment. Survey the workplace and work processes for potential hazards and adopt measures to lessen the exposure to ergonomic risk factors. Answer the question: “Are certain work areas more prone to ergonomic hazards than others?” Involve employees. Include employees in risk assessment, recognition of MSD symptoms, design of work-specific equipment or tools, and the setting of work performance rules and guidelines. Plan and execute. Integrate ergonomic responsibilities into the performance plans for all personnel. Demand accountability for program success. File injury reports. Encourage early reporting of MSD symptoms or injuries. Refer employees to the company’s medical facilities or to the employee’s personal physician for treatment. Evaluate and assess the ergonomics program. Periodically review the effectiveness of the ergonomics program. If the program appears to be ineffective, determine the underlying causes for failure and propose corrective changes.
Reducing Violence in the Workplace Management commitment to and employee involvement in preventing acts of violence Analyzing the workplace to uncover areas of potential violence Preventing and controlling violence by designing safe workplaces and work practices Providing violence prevention training throughout the organization Evaluating violence program effectiveness © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–27
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–28 FIGURE 12.3 Violence Indicators: Know the Warning Signs Most people leave a trail of indicators before they become violent. Similarly, disgruntled former employees who commit acts of violence leave warning signs of their intent before and after termination. The following behaviors should be taken seriously when assessing situations of potential violence: Direct or veiled threatening statements Recent performance declines, including concentration problems and excessive excuses Prominent mood or behavior changes; despondence Preoccupation with guns, knives, or other weapons Deliberate destruction of workplace equipment; sabotage Fascination with stories of violence Reckless or antisocial behavior; evidence of prior assaultive behavior Aggressive behavior or intimidating statements Written messages of violent intent; exaggerated perceptions of injustice Serious stress in personal life Obsessive desire to harm a specific group or person Violence against a family member Substance abuse
To deter terrorist attacks: Heighten ID checks and baggage screening Increase video monitoring with threat-recognition software to back up human surveillance Install blast-resistant glass to reduce casualties Have offsite emergency offices Tighten garage security with stepped-up inspections Stagger deliveries to reduce truck traffic Develop emergency evacuation procedures, including escape routes, emergency equipment, and gathering locations © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–29
Teams, composed of both hourly and managerial employees, conduct: Initial risk assessment surveys Develop action plans to respond to violent situations Perform crisis intervention during violent, or potentially violent, encounters © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–30
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–31 FIGURE 12.4 Calming an Angry Employee If you try to defuse a tense situation, remember that anger results from a person’s feeling of being wronged, misunderstood, or unheard. Keep the following tips in mind to guide you. Strive to save the employee’s dignity during an angry confrontation. Do not attack a person’s rash statements or continue a muddled line of thinking. Hold all conversations in private. Do not allow the employee to create an embarrassing public situation for himself or herself, yourself, or other employees. Always remain calm. Anger or aggressiveness on your part will trigger a similar response in the employee. Listen to the employee with an open mind and nonjudgmental behavior. Give the employee the benefit of hearing him or her out. Recognize the employee’s legitimate concerns or feelings. Agree that the employee has a valid point and that you will work to correct the problem. If the employee is very emotional or if the engagement seems out of control, schedule a delayed meeting so people can calm down. Keep the discussion as objective as possible. Focus on the problem at hand, not the personalities of individuals. A cornerstone of conflict resolution is to “attack the problem, not the personality.” If the employee appears overly aggressive, withdraw immediately and seek professional help before any further discussion with the employee. If your efforts fail to calm the employee, report the incident to your manager, security, or human resource personnel.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–32 Alternative Approaches Wellness Programs Health ServicesFocus on Nutrition
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–33 Depression Alcoholism Abuse of Illegal Drugs Personal Crises Abuse of Legal Drugs
The Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 Requires federal contractors and recipients of federal grants to ensure a drug-free work environment. Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Transportation (DOT) specify that employers entering into contracts with them certify their intention to maintain a drug-free workplace. Required drug testing for specific positions © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–34
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–35 5 Selected Items from Salt River Project’s Substance Abuse Policy Purpose Salt River Project (SRP) has established substance abuse guidelines to: Provide a safe workplace for all employees. Ensure the consistent handling of employees and job applicants involved with alcohol and drugs. Promote a work environment entirely free from the effects of alcohol, the abuse of legal drugs, and the use, possession, or distribution of illegal drugs. Promote efficient operations. Promote high standards of employee health. Ensure employee performance. Policy 1.SRP recognizes that employee off-the-job involvement with alcohol or drugs can adversely affect the workplace and SRP’s ability to accomplish the goals stated above. Consequently, SRP requires that employees report for work and be on the job completely free from alcohol and unauthorized or illegal drugs in or upon their person. 2.Employees with a suspected or documented drug or alcohol problem shall be advised of and may be required to seek help through the Employee Assistance Program (EAP). 3.EAP participation does not prevent disciplinary action for violation of these guidelines and shall be considered as separate from any disciplinary action the supervisor may take prior to, during or after such participation.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–36 5 Selected Items from Salt River Project’s Substance Abuse Policy (cont’d) 6.A supervisor who believes an employee is at work with alcohol or drugs in his/her system may require the employee to go to an SRP-designated medical professional for a medical evaluation. In the absence of an HS nurse, another supervisor, if possible, should witness and confirm any observed deficiencies in the employee’s performance and behavior. With the documentation of the supervisor, a drug test can be ordered from the appropriate SRP-designated collection facility. Transportation will be provided for the employee for such an evaluation. New Hires All pre-placement physical evaluations will include a lab test for substance abuse. A job applicant who tests positive, as determined in accordance with standards established at the sole discretion of SRP, will not be hired. If the job applicant refuses such testing or is unable to produce a specimen within two (2) hours, he/she will not be hired. A job applicant who has a positive test result will not be eligible for employment for one (1) year from the date of the test. A job applicant with a prior history of substance abuse will not be rejected solely on that basis. If an SRP-designated medical professional believes that the applicant has been fully rehabilitated, then the applicant will be given full consideration for employment.
Stress Any adjustive demand caused by physical, mental, or emotional factors that requires coping behavior. Eustress Positive stress that accompanies achievement and exhilaration. Distress Harmful stress characterized by a loss of feelings of security and adequacy. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–37
Sources of Job-Related Stress High demand High effort Low control Low reward Burnout Most severe stage of distress, manifesting itself in depression, frustration, and loss of productivity. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–38
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–39 FIGURE 12.5 Tips for Reducing Job-Related Stress Build rewarding relationships with coworkers. Talk openly with managers or employees about job or personal concerns. Prepare for the future by keeping abreast of likely changes in job demands. Do not greatly exceed your skills and abilities. Set realistic deadlines; negotiate reasonable deadlines with managers. Act now on problems or concerns of importance. Designate dedicated work periods during which time interruptions are avoided. When feeling stressed, find time for detachment or relaxation. Do not let trivial items take on importance; handle them quickly or assign them to others. Take short breaks from your work area as a change of pace.
© 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.12–40 burnout cumulative trauma disorders depression distress eustress Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) recordable case right-to-know laws stress
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