Presentation on theme: "28.2 Western Democracies Stumble"— Presentation transcript:
128.2 Western Democracies Stumble What political and economic challenges did the Western world face in the 1920s and 1930s? How did various countries react to them?
2French Foreign Policy Peace settlement caused friction in Europe France built Maginot Line, strengthened militaryStrict enforcement of the Treaty of VersaillesBritain wanted to relax harsh treatment of Germany, worried about France or Soviet Union becoming too strong
3New Era of Peace?1925 – Locarno treaties – settled border disputes pledged not to resort to force, demilitarization of the Rhineland1928- Kellogg-Briand Pact – “renounce war as an instrument of national policy” (outlawed war)-disarmament (reduction of armed forces/weapons)
5Problems with the “Peace” Peace settlement caused friction in EuropeKellogg-Briand Pact had no way to enforce banDisarmament Problems?League of Nations is powerless -condemned Japanese invasion of ManchuriaResentment from the losers of WWIWhat would you think if you were an aspiring dictator?
13Fascism on the RiseDef: Any centralized, authoritarian government that is not communist whose policies glorify the state (extreme nationalism) over the individual and are destructive to human rights. It is anti-democratic, anti-parliamentary and often anti-Semitic.Wanted no conflict by class or party and held only a single national purposeThe needs of the state outweigh the needs of the individualUse fear and police surveillance to keep control
14Benito Mussolini ( )Began the party in 1919 along with others (veterans, etc..) who were resentful that Italy had been “cheated” in ParisUsed fear of Communism and promises of peace to gain support“Black Shirts” as intimidationPlayed up Italian nationalism to gain support
17The March on Rome1921 elections sent 34 fascists to the chamber of deputiesOctober of 1922 Mussolini and the Fascists marched on Rome and King Victor Emmanuel IIINovember king and parliament granted Mussolini dictatorial authority for one year to bring order to local government
19Fascist Ita By 1926: “Il duce” One party system Heavy Fascist propagandaSecret Police created to enforce gov’t. ruleFreedom of speech eliminated"Benito Mussolini loves children a lot. The children of Italy love the Duce a lot. Long live Il Duce !. A salute to Il Duce: Here's to us!".
20State over the Individual - Propaganda “The function of a citizen and a soldier are inseparable”“It is the State which educates its citizens in civic virtue, gives them a consciousness of their mission and welds them into unity.”
21The Soviet Union Under Stalin Objective 1: Explain Stalin’s methods of control and the changes they brought to Soviet society.Objective 2: Explain the facets of totalitarianism
22Stalin 1924: Lenin dies…begins a struggle over power v. Trotsky Sentences all those who oppose him to exile, prison, or death1929: Stalin becomes dictator; all soviet councils are puppets
23The Five Year PlanAimed at building industry, transportation, and increasing farm outputAll economic activity under government control – command economyIncreased production – but at a large cost of human life
25Collectives Initially not supported Stalin had kulaks (wealthy farmers) punishedCreated the “Terror Famine”Policies did not increase farm outputAgriculture under government controlCreated collectives – large farms owned and supplied by the government, operated by peasants
26Stalin’s Russia Use of force and propaganda increase Secret police (KGB) establishedArrest and kill any who opposed the state“Re-educate” any who doubted the greatness of the statePurgesAll religion was outlawed, cult of Stalin createdParty leaders become the rich upper class
30Stalin’s Foreign Policy CominternEncouraged worldwide revolutionSupported revolutionary activities outside of the Soviet UnionCaused Great Britain and other countries to break off relations with the Soviet UnionMistrust
31Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany Objective: Identify the reasons for Hitler’s and the Nazi’s rise to power in Germany.
32Hitler’s Rise to Power Background After the war joined the German workers party and by 1921 was its leading spokesmanWeimar Government was weak so…From Nazi party grewUsed the SA under Ernst Roehm (Brown Shirts) to intimidate1922 party membership way up (10x) so he decided it was time to try and seize power
33The Beer Hall Putsch November 1923 Hitler sentenced to 5 years in jail (served less than 1)The trial was great PR for his messageWhile in jail wrote Mein KampfBlamed WW1 loss on Jews, Marxists, corrupt politicians, and business leadersIdea of Lebensraum “living space”
36Good Times, Bad Times… World wide depression 43% unemployed in Germany by 1932“Hitler Time”: Nazi promises of national recovery
37Rise of Nazi Party to National Power (Reichstag elections-parliamentary) 1926 0% no seats in parliament1928 2.6% 12 out of 489 seats1930 19.6% 107 out of 547 seats1932 33.5% 196 out of 585 seats
38Nazi Party Growth1932 the Nazi’s are the strongest party in the ReichstagHitler was appointed chancellor by Hindenburg in January of 1933 by industrialists who thought they could control him and were fearful of communism and socialism (Reichstag had become powerless)
39Hitler Seizes Total Control Reichstag building mysteriously burned downHitler issues an emergency decree suspending civil libertiesMarch 1933: New election returns only 43.9% Nazi’s to the ReichstagHitler arrested CommunistsEnabling Act which allowed him to rule by decreeBy late June he has outlawed all other parties and controls all aspects of German societyPropaganda minister Joseph Goebbels