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28.2 Western Democracies Stumble

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1 28.2 Western Democracies Stumble
What political and economic challenges did the Western world face in the 1920s and 1930s? How did various countries react to them?

2 French Foreign Policy Peace settlement caused friction in Europe
France built Maginot Line, strengthened military Strict enforcement of the Treaty of Versailles Britain wanted to relax harsh treatment of Germany, worried about France or Soviet Union becoming too strong

3 New Era of Peace? 1925 – Locarno treaties – settled border disputes pledged not to resort to force, demilitarization of the Rhineland 1928- Kellogg-Briand Pact – “renounce war as an instrument of national policy” (outlawed war) -disarmament (reduction of armed forces/weapons)


5 Problems with the “Peace”
Peace settlement caused friction in Europe Kellogg-Briand Pact had no way to enforce ban Disarmament Problems? League of Nations is powerless -condemned Japanese invasion of Manchuria Resentment from the losers of WWI What would you think if you were an aspiring dictator?



8 Great Depression 1929 – U.S. stock market collapsed
America stops loaning money – hurts Britain, France, and Germany 1 in 4 were unemployed in USA, even higher in Europe.

9 Democracy Stumbles Depression made citizens question democratic governments Inability to solve foreign policy issues and act strong on aggression further emboldened radicals

Result… Weak Alliances + Weak Governments Weak Economies = DICTATORSHIPS & TOTALITARIANISM

11 Fascism on the Rise Italy
Objective 1: Describe how conditions in Italy favored the rise of Mussolini Objective 2: Understand the values and goals of fascist ideology

Weak Alliances + Weak Governments Weak Economies = DICTATORSHIPS & TOTALITARIANISM

13 Fascism on the Rise Def: Any centralized, authoritarian government that is not communist whose policies glorify the state (extreme nationalism) over the individual and are destructive to human rights. It is anti-democratic, anti-parliamentary and often anti-Semitic. Wanted no conflict by class or party and held only a single national purpose The needs of the state outweigh the needs of the individual Use fear and police surveillance to keep control

14 Benito Mussolini ( ) Began the party in 1919 along with others (veterans, etc..) who were resentful that Italy had been “cheated” in Paris Used fear of Communism and promises of peace to gain support “Black Shirts” as intimidation Played up Italian nationalism to gain support



17 The March on Rome 1921 elections sent 34 fascists to the chamber of deputies October of 1922 Mussolini and the Fascists marched on Rome and King Victor Emmanuel III November king and parliament granted Mussolini dictatorial authority for one year to bring order to local government


19 Fascist Ita By 1926: “Il duce” One party system
Heavy Fascist propaganda Secret Police created to enforce gov’t. rule Freedom of speech eliminated "Benito Mussolini loves children a lot. The children of Italy love the Duce a lot. Long live Il Duce !. A salute to Il Duce: Here's to us!".

20 State over the Individual - Propaganda
“The function of a citizen and a soldier are inseparable” “It is the State which educates its citizens in civic virtue, gives them a consciousness of their mission and welds them into unity.”

21 The Soviet Union Under Stalin
Objective 1: Explain Stalin’s methods of control and the changes they brought to Soviet society. Objective 2: Explain the facets of totalitarianism

22 Stalin 1924: Lenin dies…begins a struggle over power v. Trotsky
Sentences all those who oppose him to exile, prison, or death 1929: Stalin becomes dictator; all soviet councils are puppets

23 The Five Year Plan Aimed at building industry, transportation, and increasing farm output All economic activity under government control – command economy Increased production – but at a large cost of human life

24 Forced Relocations

25 Collectives Initially not supported
Stalin had kulaks (wealthy farmers) punished Created the “Terror Famine” Policies did not increase farm output Agriculture under government control Created collectives – large farms owned and supplied by the government, operated by peasants

26 Stalin’s Russia Use of force and propaganda increase
Secret police (KGB) established Arrest and kill any who opposed the state “Re-educate” any who doubted the greatness of the state Purges All religion was outlawed, cult of Stalin created Party leaders become the rich upper class

27 Propaganda


29 Gulags

30 Stalin’s Foreign Policy
Comintern Encouraged worldwide revolution Supported revolutionary activities outside of the Soviet Union Caused Great Britain and other countries to break off relations with the Soviet Union Mistrust

31 Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany
Objective: Identify the reasons for Hitler’s and the Nazi’s rise to power in Germany.

32 Hitler’s Rise to Power Background
After the war joined the German workers party and by 1921 was its leading spokesman Weimar Government was weak so… From Nazi party grew Used the SA under Ernst Roehm (Brown Shirts) to intimidate 1922 party membership way up (10x) so he decided it was time to try and seize power

33 The Beer Hall Putsch November 1923
Hitler sentenced to 5 years in jail (served less than 1) The trial was great PR for his message While in jail wrote Mein Kampf Blamed WW1 loss on Jews, Marxists, corrupt politicians, and business leaders Idea of Lebensraum “living space”



36 Good Times, Bad Times… World wide depression
43% unemployed in Germany by 1932 “Hitler Time”: Nazi promises of national recovery

37 Rise of Nazi Party to National Power (Reichstag elections-parliamentary) 
1926   0%  no seats in parliament 1928   2.6%  12 out of 489 seats 1930   19.6% 107 out of 547 seats 1932   33.5% 196 out of 585 seats

38 Nazi Party Growth 1932 the Nazi’s are the strongest party in the Reichstag Hitler was appointed chancellor by Hindenburg in January of 1933 by industrialists who thought they could control him and were fearful of communism and socialism (Reichstag had become powerless)

39 Hitler Seizes Total Control
Reichstag building mysteriously burned down Hitler issues an emergency decree suspending civil liberties March 1933: New election returns only 43.9% Nazi’s to the Reichstag Hitler arrested Communists Enabling Act which allowed him to rule by decree By late June he has outlawed all other parties and controls all aspects of German society Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels


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