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Propaganda during WWI By Jake Mosher and Andy Song.

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1 Propaganda during WWI By Jake Mosher and Andy Song

2 What is propaganda? ► The spreading of ideas, facts, or allegations to further ones cause, or damage an opposing cause ► Aimed to influence people’s behavior and opinions

3 Government use of propaganda during Wartime ► To boost enlistment numbers ► Raise moral on the home front ► Encourage investment into war bonds ► To help the transition into a wartime economy

4 Propaganda Techniques ► Band Wagon - Everyone does it, you should ► Glorification - Make soldiers appear heroic ► Gruesome - Leave vivid/permanent mental image ► Guilt/Mockery - Isolating specific category ► Fears – Expose Insecurities, Relate

5 World War I Propaganda

6 ► In the form of posters, newspapers, slogans, billboards, and cinema ads ► It was everywhere ► Manipulated people through their emotions

7 German Propaganda ► Germany was one of the first countries to begin producing propaganda ► German propaganda was often unique from other countries ► Sometimes involved mythological creatures “We teach you to run!”

8 British War Propaganda Bureau (WPB) ► Established September 2 nd 1914. ► Consisted of 25 leading authors who agreed to write books and pamphlets promoting the governments view of the war. ► Published pamphlets such as Report on Alleged German Outrages, which gave credence to the idea that the German Army had tortured Belgium citizens

9 Department of Information ► Established in February, 1917 ► Became the central department for all British propaganda

10 Common British Propaganda ► Much British propaganda focused on demonizing the enemy. ► Sought to raise emotions of fear and hate.

11 Common British Propaganda ► British propaganda often appealed to the sense of national pride. ► Was designed to invoke feelings of guilt in those not enlisted.

12 British Propaganda ► The execution of nurse Edith Cavell was a major theme of Anti- German propaganda. ► Recruitment doubled for eight weeks after her death was announced.

13 U.S. Propaganda ► Committee of Public Information established April 13, 1917 ► Influenced American public opinion toward supporting U.S. intervention in the war ► Organized a speaker's bureau of seventy-five thousand people, known as the "Four-Minute Men." ► Made liberal use of war atrocity stories in their speeches

14 U.S. Propaganda “Over there” “Over there” by Billy Murray

15 World War II Propaganda

16 WWII Germany ► Nazi Germany is glorified, unified ► Hitler clenched fist, stern face, power, omnipotent ► Bright sunlight, dove, hope and courage ► 1939

17 WWII United States ► Depicts Japan and Germany, stereotypical features ► Very close, massive warning sign ► Shown as dangerous and menacing, sneaky ► Corner emblem, “Our Job”, Patriotism ► 1942 1942

18 WWII Soviet Russia ► Children, sympathy and can relate ► Background is gloomy, dark, hopelessness ► Barbed wire, encaged, suffering ► Facial expression traumatized, fearful ► 1942 1942

19 WWII Britain ► Very plain, very direct ► Finger pointing, addressing each individual ► Strong message, can’t rely on others, work towards goal ► 1942 1942

20 WWII United States ► Two major axis powers, dark and evil. ► America is portrayed as angelic and innocent ► Image of defenseless baby, need to protect. protect. ► 1943 1943

21 WWII Germany ► Literature used as Propaganda ► Comic books: Vica, turn French against Allies ► Hitler Auto-biography, Mein Kampf

22 Different Forms of Propaganda

23 Practices of Propaganda ► Propaganda used to convince citizens to join war effort ► Indirect Methods: War bonds, Rationing goods, Giving materials ► Direct Methods: Enlisting, Volunteering, Production

24 Practices of Propaganda II ► Subtle features: Features such as shading, color, font size, etc. ► Obvious features: Features such as text, images, metaphors, symbolism ► Used to stir emotions within civilians: Patriotism, Hatred, Fear

25 Ministry of Information ► British government controlled ► Responsible for all publicity and propaganda ► started in October 1935

26 Ministry of Public Enlightenment ► Regulated its culture and society ► Started by Germany Nationalist Socialist Party + Hitler ► Enforced Nazi Ideology ► March 13, 1933

27 Crucial Point of Propaganda ► Bombing of Pearl Harbor ► American became involved ► Changed outcome of WWII entirely ► Constantly referred to for justification ► 1942

28 Results of Pearl Harbor ► US became involved in War ► Mass increase in Anti- Japanese sentiments ► Propaganda became more focused on Japanese ► Creation of Internment Camps

29 Results of Pearl Harbor II ► America became a war-driven economy ► Majority of US citizens supported War ► War bonds became vital factor to military, constantly advertised

30 Changes in Propaganda between WWI and WWII ► Posters used extensively in both wars ► Propaganda methods more technologically advanced in WWII. ► WWI Propaganda more focused on romanticize/glorify, WWII propaganda on dehumanization

31 Changes in Propaganda between WWI and WWII Part 2 ► More types of propaganda began to appear in WWII, such as comic books, novelty items, toys, etc. ► Propaganda becomes integrated into daily lifestyles ► Directed towards a larger audience (women)

32 Reasons for Changes ► Alternative forms of Propaganda, attempting to extend reach and degree ► Men left for war, needed reliant and capable workers, women ► Countries already experienced total war

33 Reasons for Changes Part 2 ► Societies were becoming more Urbanized, people use new alternative sources for info. ► More people had access to radio and television ► Toys, Comic Books, brainwash children, young and impressionable, guilt parents into contribution

34 Effects ► World War II comic book propaganda saw a major evolution of the modern day super hero ► Result of heavy anti-Japanese sentiments in WWII propaganda, creation of internment camps. ► Women equal to men ► Pearl Harbor Propaganda, America involved. ► US citizens very patriotic and nationalistic

35 Statement ► Overall, propaganda was a fundamental tool to all governments during both wars. ► Fueled war effort indirectly and directly ► Society now more aware and cautious of media exposure ► Propaganda symbolizes perspectives, events, methods, and sentiments of nations during that time Period

36 Bibliography ► Duffy,Michael. “Propaganda Posters” (28 May 2009) ► No author. “The British War Propaganda Bureau”. (28 May 2009) ► No author. “The Creel Committee”. (28 May 2009) ► McGill, James. “Anti-Axis Collectibles”. (28 May 2009) ► Johnson, Jane. “World War I Propaganda Posters”. (28 May 2009) ► Young, Thomas. “German WWI Psyop”. (29 May 2009)

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