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ZOO 115 Invertebrate Zoology Subphylum Crustacea.

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Presentation on theme: "ZOO 115 Invertebrate Zoology Subphylum Crustacea."— Presentation transcript:

1 ZOO 115 Invertebrate Zoology Subphylum Crustacea

2 Arthropoda – Subphylum Crustacea ~ 42,000 species Major trophic link between primary producers (phytoplankton) and higher level consumers Mostly aquatic Three part brain Two pair of antennae Tactile Chemosensory Many legs Mostly separate sexes Antennae

3 Subphylum Crustacea Shrimps and shrimp- like animals

4 Subphylum Crustacea Lobsters and crawfish

5 Subphylum Crustacea Crabs

6 Class Branchiopoda Order Anostraca Can tolerate desiccation and high salinity mm in length Elongate shrimp-like bodies without a carapace Have stalked compound eyes Most are suspension feeders Swim ventral side up Use their thoracic appendages for capturing food particles Food is passed to a central groove, encased in mucus and moved forward to mouth. Gonochoric Nauplius larvae Newsltr/Images/fairyshrimp.j pg Fairy shrimp Brine Shrimp /nauplius.jpg Nauplius larvae

7 Class Branchiopoda Order Notostraca Tadpole shrimps None occur in oceans Feed on organic matter in sediments; some are predators or scavengers Characteristic broad shield-like carapace and long caudal rami Triops considered a major pest in rice fields AquaSlowakisch/TriopsSite/Triops.JPG Order Notostraca Triops (tadpole shrimp)

8 Class Branchiopoda Order Diplostraca Clam shrimps and cladocerans Mostly freshwater Scavengers, predators, detritivores, and suspension feeders Well developed clam-like carapace All have a dorsal organ that could function as: Salt gland Neck Gland Adhesion Swim with their powerful second antenna D_pulex_09.jpg Cladocera Daphnia (water flea) Conchostraca Clam shrimp

9 Class Branchiopoda Order Diplostraca Sexes Hermaphroditism Gonochorism Type of reproduction Monosexual - Parthenogenesis Bisexual reproduction - normal sexual reproduction Eggs Summer - thin-shelled Winter - resting Normal conditions Females make eggs that hatch without fertilization and become females (2N) When environmentally stressed Females produce eggs that hatch into haploid males. Once the males become mature, the Cladocerans can reproduce sexually. Parthenogenesis in Cladocera

10 Cladoceran – reproductive strategies malcules/D_pulex_09.jpg Cladocera Daphnia (water flea) Population all females Stable conditions Egg Produces Female identical to adult

11 Cladoceran – reproductive strategies malcules/D_pulex_09.jpg Cladocera Daphnia (water flea) Population all females Produces Male Egg Produces Female Unstable conditions Swims to new area Mates with female Produces new females but different genetically from adult

12 Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca Number of segments lobster_dorsal_view.jpg lobster_dorsal_view.jpg Appendages Head - sensory and feeding Thoracic - crawling or grasping Abdominal (unique to this Class and Remipedia) - swimming and copulation Abdomen - 6* Telson - 1 Head - 5 Thorax - 8* * Usually Antenna MaxillipedMandible Pleopod Telson

13 Class Malacostraca Order Stomatopoda Mantis shrimps Specialized predators No cephalothorax Head, thorax and abdomen Two large stalked compound eyes and a third medial naupliar eye m/BY255L/BY255LImages/Arthro poda/Squillaempusa-1.jpg Stalked compound eye naupliar eye

14 Class Malacostraca Order Stomatopoda Triramous antennae Specialized prehensile raptorial claws du/arthropoda/crustacea/ma lacostraca/eumalacostraca/s tomatopodamm.html Has abdominal gills like isopods Enormous digestive cecum Very well developed heart and hemal system

15 Class Malacostraca Order Euphausiacea Krill All pelagic Major source of food for whales, squids and fishes Thoracic gills external to carapace Feeding basket

16 Carid Shrimp Class Malacostraca Order Decapoda Shrimp-like IO Caridea (shrimp) SO Dendrobranciata SF Penaeoidae (prawns) IO Stenopodidea Carid Shrimp Penaeid Shrimp Note than third segment is NOT on top of segments 2 and 4 Stenopodidea Cleaner shrimp Lobster-like IO Astacidea (lobster) IO Palinura (spiny and slippery lobster) IO Thalassinidea (ghost shrimp) Astacidea - First three periopods chelate Palinura – note that the first three periopods are NOT chelate Thalassinidea – Ghost shrimp Phyllosoma larve

17 Crab-like IO Brachyura (True crabs) Brachyura Note that the fifth pleopod is easily visible Anomura – hermit crab Anomura – note 5 th pleopod is greatly reduced and not readily visible Anomuran Porcelain crab zoea IO Anomura

18 Class Malacostraca Order Decapoda Feeding 6 pair of feeding appendages 1 pr Mandibles 2 pr Maxillae 3 pr Maxillipeds Most predators and/or scavengers, some suspension feeders, some detritivores, some herbivores, some onmivores

19 Class Malacostraca Order Decapoda Internal anatomy Up to 24 pair of gills

20 Class Malacostraca Order Decapoda Sense organs Legs Antennae 1 st Stalked compound eye

21 Class Malacostraca Order Decapoda Chromatophores Shrimps especially good at changing color

22 Class Malacostraca Order Decapoda Reproduction Most separate sexes (gonochoric) Sperm transfer – indirect (spermatophores) Many have copulation Bachyurans may block fertilization for up to a year following copulation

23 Class Malacostraca Order Decapoda Lobster Life cycle Planktonic larvae of the spiny lobster Phyllosoma larvae

24 Class Malacostraca Order Decapoda Crab Life cycle

25 Class Malacostraca Order Mysida Mysid shrimps Most 2-30 mm Gnathophausia - 35 cm Omnivorous suspension feeders Well developed carapace and tail fan

26 Class Malacostraca Order Isopoda Isopods, pill bugs ~10,000 sp 0.5 – 50 cm Virtually all habitats Flattened dorso- ventrally

27 Class Malacostraca Order Amphipoda Amphipods ~8000 sp. 1mm-25 cm In almost every habitat Flattened laterally Carapace absent Gills thoracic Gammarid Amphipods Caprellid amphipod Lives in a Salp Hyperiidea amphipod

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