2 Job Description (not position description) IdentifiersTitle and other classifying informationSummaryMission/ objectivesDuties & tasks (<100 tasks; 5-10 duties)What -action verb)How – tools, equipment etc.Why – purpose “to…”Other informationKSAOs, accountabilities, reports etc.
3 Issues in Job Description Descriptive v. PrescriptiveIs performed v. ought to bePresent v. FutureHow it’s performed now cf anticipated changesKey considerationsMethod to fit purpose of JAHow it’s to be applied determines infor collectedKnow the purpose of the job
4 Performance Appraisal Purposes Support performance managementAdministrativeDevelopmentalUse for criterion development (selection)
5 Rating Formats Graphic Rating Scales Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)Behavioral Observation ScalesForced-choice ScalesDifficult to fakeReliablePrecursor to forced distribution for rankingAdministrative: merit awards
6 Rating Scales (comparison) All are difficult to developUsers like BOS,Users hate forced-choiceMost not useful for coaching/developmentEspecially “global” ratings
7 Behavioral Job Description Can substitute for managementObjectives / outcomes from behavior termsPrescribed behaviors / outcomes for successful performanceCreate one for your jobEstablish evaluation standardsBenchmarks
8 Job Evaluation Equity theory (Adams) concerns with: Internal: Same jobs, same company (internal)Different jobs, same company (internal)External:Same job different company (external)Market value issue–what are some factors that will affect this?
9 Evaluation Whole job v. Compensable Factors Ranking method (simplest) SKA/effort/responsibility/work conditions(Equal Pay Act, 1963)Compensable factorsFactor comparison methodpanel ranks jobs & assigns $ value to each factor (table 7.6)Jobs v. AttributesPoint Factor methods (table 7.7)(Hay Group)U.S. Civil Service Commission (table 7.8)
10 Evaluation Methods Multiple Regression PAQ O*Net Beta weights usedPAQCross validation avg about .85)O*NetStandardized set of abilities and work activitiesGood reliability for Job Evaluation
11 Job Design / Redesign Production System Needs Social –Organizational NeedsIndividual worker NeedsPhysicalJCM dimensionsInternal Social relations factorsCareer paths
12 Design Decisions Accomplished by People Task Allocation For Problem solving, Humans are better than robots (so far)Keeps them tuned up if they have to use skillsAirline pilotsTruck divers (in the future)Task AllocationHow many people do you need?Redundancy needed?Cross training?Job Relations (proximal – distal distance)
13 Key Considerations Kinds of information Redesign Process (4 steps) Duties and how they fit the missionRedesign Process (4 steps)1. Define task clusters (smallest collection)2. Rate clusters (table 7.9)3. Combine clusters4. Evaluate resultsFor motivational potential and satisfaction