Presentation on theme: "Aquinas on Fortitude Dr. Michael K. Green. Virtues Develop reason itself – Intellectual virtues Establish right reason in human affairs – Justice Remove."— Presentation transcript:
Virtues Develop reason itself – Intellectual virtues Establish right reason in human affairs – Justice Remove obstacles to establishing right reason – Temperance –removes the tendency to be drawn by some object of pleasure to something other than what the rectitude of reason requires – Fortitude—remove the disinclination to follow that which is in accordance with reason on account of some difficulty that presents itself
Fortitude Firmness of mind – in doing good – in enduring evil Moderate one’s fear according to reason – fear what one ought – when he ought No one ought to expose himself to danger for the sake of a thing that he does not deem great
Vices of Fear and Daring Insufficiency of – Daring=timidity – Fearlessness=daring Excess of – Daring=fearlessness – Fear=timidity
Vices of Prudence Vice – Rashness=to act quickly before taking counsel
Fortitude Aggression= consists in a man taking the offensive against that which is in opposition to him – Mental aspect Confidence= with this the mind is much assured and firmly hopeful in great and honorable undertakings certitude of hope= confidence denotes a certain strength of hope arising from some observation which gives one a strong opinion that one will obtain a certain good confidence is hope strengthened by a strong opinion security denotes perfect freedom of the mind from fear puts care aside, as one ought, and in things when one should not fear
Fortitude Aggression – Performance aspect Constancy or strenuousness =not failing to accomplish what one has confidently begun Magnitude of the thing hoped for
Fortitude Endurance – Patience—bear sorrow and to suffer with an equal mind the evils inflicted by other longanimity –the delay of the hoped for good – Perseverance – the fixed and continued persistence in a well considered purpose
Fortitude Constancy – the toil which man endures in persistently accomplishing a good work – constancy makes him persist firmly in good against difficulties arising from any other external hindrances.
Fortitude Perseverance – makes man persist firmly in good, against the difficulty that arises from the very continuance of the act – Vices Softness—ones who yields too easily Pertinacious—one who holds on impudently
Fortitude Hope from the removal of fear – Confidence from a strong opinion Hope we conceive through observing something either – in oneself---for instance, through observing that he is healthy, a man is confident that he will live long. – in another, for instance, through observing that another is friendly to him and powerful, a man is confident that he will receive help from him.
Fearlessness Fearlessness is a vice, whether it result from – Lack of love One should love temporal goods in due measure – Pride of soul Believing that one is invincible – Dullness of understanding Ignorance