Presentation on theme: "IGE105 – Communication Technology in a Changing World Dr. Ken Cosh Week 10."— Presentation transcript:
IGE105 – Communication Technology in a Changing World Dr. Ken Cosh Week 10
Recap… Last Week We talked about the future of ICT Ubiquitous Computing Technology blends into the environment Technology is pervasive with touchpoints throughout Augmented / Virtual Reality
This Week Originally the plan was: Politics And how ICT is impacting on politics But… So instead, Regulation Regulation in Cyberspace
But First Briefly, How has ICT affected Politics? Electronic Voting Machines Censorship Connection between politicians and population Tweeting What else?
Regulation Lawrence Lessig Professor of Law and Harvard Law School (previously at Stanford) Author of Free Culture The Future of Ideas Code and the other Laws of Cyberspace
The Laws of Cyberspace Lessig argues… The world is regulated by four constraints Law Social Norm Market Architecture
Law Law regulates by sanctions ex-post Don’t pay tax -> Go to jail Steal my car -> Go to jail But while Law is an obvious regulator, it is not the only regulator. You don’t always go to jail for not paying taxes.
Social Norms Regulate behaviour by “what I ought to do” I ought to wear a shirt (& tie), rather than a dress You ought to sit and listen to me for a while
The Market Markets through the mechanism of ‘price’ regulates opportunities Price dictates what I can afford The price also dictates what I can charge for various abilities People would spend less on “The greatest hits of Dr. Ken” than they would on “Madonna’s greatest hits”
Architecture The architecture of the world regulates our abilities We can’t see through walls We can’t come to class if we are in a wheelchair We can’t fly…
4 Regulators The ‘real world’ is regulated by a combination of these 4 regulators As we consider regulating the cyberspace world, the same 4 regulators have an impact
Laws in Cyberspace Laws exist in cyberspace, and are punishable Copyright law Defamation law Sexual harrassment law Behaviour is constrained by law, just as in the real world.
Social Norms in Cyberspace Social norms also constrain cyberspace Forum rules Banning / Kicking from chat rooms
Market in Cyberspace Prices in cyberspace also constrain that world. We can access a wider market, but the price still constrains us.
Architecture in Cyberspace It exists, but is different from the architecture of the real world Hardware / Software Protocols Password to gain access Encryption Tracking transactions We can’t choose whether to obey the architecture (just as in the real world) Unless we are a hacker…
Regulating Cyberspace Cyberspace then is regulated with the same 4 regulators Law Social Norm Market Architecture
Lets think about ‘Porn’ A lot of people have raised a lot of concerns about the amount of porn available on the web. And how easy it is to access it Moreover how easy it is for minors to access it But there is plenty of porn in the ‘real world’ too How is it regulated?
Real World Porn Law: It is against the law for distributors to sell porn to minors. Social Norm: Generally society looks down on distributing porn to minors. Market: Porn is priced such that minors can’t really afford it. All of these also apply to the cyberspace world. So what about architecture?
Architecture In the real world. Fake moustache? Stilts? Deep voice? In Cyberspace Default anonymity
The Architecture Because the architecture of cyberspace is different from the real world, regulation of cyberspace is different But there is no one single architecture of the web Organisations / Governments have choices about what architecture to use
Choice of Architecture What happens when you try to surf the web at Payap? How is it different from my old university? If I encrypt a message, is it truly encrypted? Or could the government read it anyway? What happens if I go to a website considered ‘detrimental to society’ in Thailand?
Choice of Architecture Can I host my porn site in the US? Or my gambling site? Can anyone see my drunken tagged photos on facebook? Can I control who can see them?
Control vs Freedom Traditionally the web is considered a free space But there is a choice of architectures allowing control over that space Controlling Access Controlling Use Controlling Privacy
The Constitution A nation’s constitution then often guides the architecture Architecture of Control Architecture of Freedom Consider the architecture used in the US vs Burma vs China…
Encryption Software We’ll come back to discuss encryption again later, but The ability to (or not to) be completely anonymous in cyberspace is a big issue. It affects the regulability of cyberspace The ability for governments to regulate our activities online. It also affects basic human rights Freedom of Speech Right to Privacy
Back to the “Real World” We have passports Travel is restricted based on passports Movements are tracked by passports Criminals are identified by passports In some countries the burden of passports is greater than others Government policies to stop peasants from flooding cities during famines
Cyberworld ID Consider having online passports Great! Catch the criminals with minimal burden on the innocent Awful! Loss of freedom – complete government control What do you think?