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An Investigation of the Perspectives of NCCU English Majors on Alternative Course Designs for Language Skills Courses Seminar on Research Methodology and.

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Presentation on theme: "An Investigation of the Perspectives of NCCU English Majors on Alternative Course Designs for Language Skills Courses Seminar on Research Methodology and."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Investigation of the Perspectives of NCCU English Majors on Alternative Course Designs for Language Skills Courses Seminar on Research Methodology and Design 鄭傳傑, 陳怡蓁, 廖盈淑, 張睿銓, 潘根鴻 July 30, 2008

2 Introduction – The Changing Role of English Language Education The global role of English language education is changing in the 21 st century. The role of English language education in Taiwan is changing due to education reform. How should the NCCU Department of English react to these changes? Is it time to reevaluate the English language teaching curriculum to better suit the needs of our students?

3 Overview The changing role of English in the 21 st century English language education reforms in Asia and Taiwan English language training at comparable Departments of English Content-based vs. Skills-based English language training Summarize the factors that make this a complex issue Research Questions Methodology Discussion of our Findings Conclusion and Suggestions

4 The Role of English in the 21 st Century (Graddol, 2006 ; Kierath, 2006 ) Increasing Globalization English is the language for international communication English competence is a factor in national power English is becoming less of an advantage for getting ahead English ability is an expected necessity to keep from being left behind The age for the commencement of English language education is shifting downwards

5 The Role of English in the 21 st Century (Graddol, 2006) Fewer and fewer adult English language learners English language ability is becoming an entrance requirement for doing university level academic work instead of an exit skill developed before leaving the university Advantages: Having skills other than English, being Multi-lingual

6 Regional Trends in English Language Education The need for increased English language competence has led to education reforms across Asia Japan Hong Kong Others

7 Regional Trends in English Language Education (Mantero and Iwai, 2005) Japan MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology – Japan) began outlining new education goals in 1998 Hoped for children to catch up with globalization Essential for children to acquire communication abilities in English to live in the twenty-first century

8 Regional Trends in English Language Education – Japan Hoped “to develop students’ basic practical communication abilities such as listening and speaking, … understanding of language and culture, and fostering a positive attitude toward communication through foreign languages” (MEXT, 2003)

9 Regional Trends in English Language Education – Japan Many innovative curriculums developed in private universities (Hadley, 1999) Keio University Language immersion program. Learners work on group projects, discussions, and debates or group projects on topics that interest them. Focus is on cooperative learning and fluency rather than accuracy. Wants to instill self-confidence and fluency in spoken English to promote the further internationalization of Japanese society.

10 Regional Trends in English Language Education – Japan Asia University English lounges where only English is spoken Intensive English classes required Student exchange program, foreign roommates Tokyo Christian University Many classes taught in English with modified shelter approach. Main objective is to master content material. Language learning is incidental. Miyazaki International College Integrated classrooms - content courses in English. Aim is to develop language and critical thinking skills interactively.

11 Regional Trends in English Language Education – Hong Kong Moving from 3-year universities to 4-year universities One less year of high school Looking at ways to embed English language skills instruction into the new curriculum. It is hoped that this will help nurture capable people to drive the development of a knowledge- based economy and to meet society's rapidly changing needs.

12 Regional Trends in English Language Education – Others National University of Singapore De La Salle University in Manila Creating language programmes that implicitly focus on English as an International Language (EIL). (Hadley, 2003)

13 Taiwan Trends in English Language Education Desire for globalization Pressure to develop EFL proficiency in the hope of gaining more access in the global arena of international trade and commerce (Carey, 1998; Thompson, 2003) English ability provides social and economic mobility

14 The Role of Universities in Globalization Tertiary educational system in Taiwan partly carries the burden in internationalizing the potential of its human resources (Tiangco, 2004). Provide relevant language training and education to promising Taiwanese in preparing them for global competitiveness. Responsible for preparing undergraduate students for future careers by providing them with the necessary skills to become productive members of both industry and government. Provide continuing education programs such as courses in English

15 MOE Expectations for Universities MOE’s “The International Competitiveness Enhancement of the Universities” To be incorporated into the academic mainstream of the international community in order to enhance the research level of the overall academia of Taiwan and the quality of education and uplift the academic status and visibility of our country; internationalize our universities (by interacting with foreign universities). [MOE website, 2008]

16 The Changing Education Environment at NCCU In 2000 ETP started the trend toward internationalization and a promotion of classes that were taught in English Fewer hours needed to attain major More opportunity to take elective classes in other departments Reduced teaching hours More research responsibilities

17 Consequence for NCCU English Department Need to cut hours Courses offered reduced by 200 hours in academic year Major curriculum reform necessary Opportune time to examine the language training program Determine how to best meet the needs of future students

18 Other Comparable English Departments in Taiwan English Programs. doc English Programs. doc Required Language Training Hours Training Hours Credits Tamkang NTNU 38 Cheng Kung 36 NTU Fu Jen 30 Tsing Hua 28 Chengchi27 Chiao Tung 21

19 Other Comparable English Departments in Taiwan Required Courses NTNU English (I), Pattern Practice (I), Grammar & Rhetoric ( Ⅱ ), Writing (I- Ⅲ ), Pronunciation (I), Aural-oral Training (I- Ⅲ ), Conversation ( Ⅱ ), Public Speech ( Ⅲ ), Research Methods & Paper Writing ( Ⅲ ), English-Chinese Translation ( Ⅳ ), Discussion and Debate ( Ⅳ ) Cheng Kung English ( Ⅰ ), Composition ( Ⅰ - Ⅲ ), Translation ( Ⅲ ), Oral Training (I- II), English Language Laboratory ( Ⅰ ), Speech ( Ⅲ ) -- 6 Fu Jen Reading (I- Ⅳ ),Listening & Speaking ( Ⅰ ),Composition & Conversation ( Ⅰ - Ⅲ ),Speech & Debate( Ⅱ ),Advanced Writing( Ⅳ ) Tsing Hua English (I), Listening (I), Composition (I), Reading & Writing (II- Ⅲ ), Oral Training Sector (II- Ⅲ ) -- 5 Tamkang English (I), Composition (I- Ⅲ ), Oral Training (I- Ⅲ ), Language training & Language Laboratory (I), Translation ( Ⅲ ) -- 5 NTU English (I-II) Listening & Speaking Practice (I), Oral Training (I-II), Composition (I- Ⅲ ) -- 4 Chiao Tung Communicative Skills Workshop (I), Writing (I-II), Translation (I- II), English Competence Workshop (before graduation) 4 Chengchi Oral Training (I-II), Writing and Reading (I-II), Topics on Translation ( Ⅳ ) -- 3

20 Other Comparable English Departments in Taiwan Years of Language Training NTNU Freshmen  Senior Fu Jen Freshmen  Senior Cheng Kung Freshmen  Junior NTU Freshmen  Junior Tsing Hua Freshmen  Junior Tamkang Freshmen  Junior Chengchi Freshmen, Sophomore, Senior Chiao Tung Freshmen, Sophomore, & before graduation (for English Competence Workshop )

21 Other Comparable English Departments in Taiwan Comments 1.While NCCU is not markedly out of the norm, it does tend to fall on the low end of the scale in terms of hours of classes required 2.The English department at Chengchi university provides fewer credits of the language training courses, compared to the other schools. (Chengchi: 27; NTNU: 38; Tamkang: 34; Cheng Kung: 36)

22 Content-based vs. Skills-based Most of these curriculums are arguably characterized as being either content-based or skills-based instruction. Mostly content-based; less entirely skills- based.

23 The whole is equal to the sum of its parts. Language learning is no more than the formation of habits by means of stimulus-response conditioning. Absolute emphasis on skills and mechanics, e.g., grammar, fluency, pronunciation, etc. Content is only decorative. Students’ comprehension and knowledge of content is of little concern or not tested at all. Definition of Skills-based (El-Koumy, 2000)

24 Skills-based Instruction Advantage: Discrete subskills are clear and easy for learners to manage. Disadvantage: The teaching of language as isolated skills divorces it from its real and functional use in society (Norris and Hoffman, 1993; Reutzel and Hollingsworth, 1988).

25 Definition of Content-based (Stoller, 2004) Dual commitment to language- and content- learning objectives. Attention to learners’ growth of academic skills.

26 Models of Content-based Instruction Parkinson (2000): Science and literacies. Carson (2000): Psychology and integrated- skills English for Academic Purposes (EAP). Janzen (2001): Special effects in movies and reading skills. Mendelsohn (2001): Canadian language and culture and language-learning strategies.

27 Models of Content-based Instruction The continuum (Met, 1998): 1. It showcases the shifting emphasis on content and language. 2. At one end of the continuum are “content-driven” approaches with strong commitments to content-learning. 3. At the other end of the continuum are “language-driven” approaches with strong commitments to language learning objectives.

28 Models of Content-based Instruction

29 Content-based Instruction Advantage: Provides a means for students to continue their academic development while also improving their language proficiency (Snow, 1998; Short, 1997). Disadvantage: Less effective in developing students’ academic English, reduced to “incidental learning” (Langman, 2003).

30 NCCU English Department’s Two Proposed Course Designs Design 1: With all the language-skills courses eliminated, to teach skills in content courses as an additional requirement. Design 2: Language-skills courses to be taught with specific subject matters or themes, such as linguistics, literature, or TESOL.

31 NCCU English Department’s Two Proposed Course Designs Both content-based, with varied emphasis on content and language.

32 NCCU English Department’s Two Possible Course Designs However, little or no research has been done to investigate what students think about a new course design that is (or will be) taken and how the existing curriculum can be improved.

33 Curriculum Reform Drivers Change often purports to be for the benefit of the students and are well-intentioned. No large scale survey of student opinions of NCCU ’ s language training program since What drives most reform?

34 Curriculum Reform Drivers Abroad In Saudi Arabia and Thailand, the MOE has strangle-hold on curriculum, reforming curriculum strictly from a top-down approach. No mention of receiving student input. (Mackenzie 2002) (Zimmerman) In the USA, at Purdue University, focus groups composed of faculty and students have explored what will distinguish Purdue graduates (but only for exploratory purposes, and not included in the final decision-making).

35 Curriculum Reform Drivers in Taiwan NTNU: Conducted an opinion survey amongst its students regarding its Freshman English program. Student opinions were taken into account when the faculty proposed new courses for an Advanced English program.

36 Research questions 1. What are the students' attitudes toward the current language-skill courses? 2. What are the students' attitudes toward the proposed course designs? 3. For the students, what may constitute an ideal language training program?

37 Methodology Informants Sophomore, Junior, and Senior English majors from National Chengchi University Students who have taken the required freshman and sophomore language skill training courses would be the targets. Students from two literature classes completed the questionnaire 96 surveys returned

38 Methodology Informants Future Plans Advanced study WorkSample size Year Sophomores % ( 24 ) Juniors % ( 38 ) Seniors % 50.0 ( 20 ) In total ( 82 ) 資料來源: 2008 政治大學英文系學生對語言課程滿意度與需求之問卷調查表

39 Methodology Informants

40 Methodology Research Design Obtain the learners’ self-report of their attitudes and opinions toward: –The current language training program –Potential language training programs Questionnaire survey used

41 Methodology Instruments The researchers developed a questionnaire. Questionnaire Survey Included closed-ended and open-ended questions Part One: General Questions Part Two: Learners’ opinions on individual language class Part Three: Open-ended section for further opinions

42 Methodology Testing Validity and Reliability Validity of the questionnaire  consulted four professors Reliability of the questionnaire  two pilot tests

43 Methodology Two pilot tests ProcedureDateTargets & Contents 1st pilot4/22 17 sophomores & 2 juniors– Questionnaire survey 2nd pilot 5/2&5/6 2 Seniors, 6 juniors, & 15 sophomores -- Questionnaire survey Follow-up 5/9-5/16 5 volunteers -- interview Interview Protocol

44 Methodology Data Collection and Analysis To deal with the closed-ended questions  used the statistics software SPSS for Windows,  descriptive statistics, correlation statistics, and recursive analysis were utilized To deal with the open-ended questions (students’ comments)  The researchers developed a coding system for each item and analyzed the subjects’ responses based on the coding systems. Coding SchemeCoding Scheme

45 Findings & Discussion 1. What are the students' attitudes toward the current language-skill courses? 2. What are the students' attitudes toward the proposed course designs? 3. For the students, what may constitute an ideal language training program?

46 Students' attitudes toward the current language-skill courses Table 1 Students’ opinions on whether language training program equip them well for future career or advanced study Source from: 2008 questionnaire survey on English majors’ attitude toward language training programs. (Frequency)Percentage% Yes, very much.( 19) 19.8 Yes, but just okay.( 42) 43.8 No comments.( 2) 2.1 No, I disagree.( 26) 27.1 No, I seriously disagree.( 7) 7.3 Total( 96) 100.0

47 Students' attitudes toward the current language-skill courses Table 2 Students’ opinion on whether specific program enhance language skills. Source from: 2008 questionnaire survey on English majors’ attitude toward language training programs. Explanation: Survey questions ‘My proficiency in this skill was upgraded by taking this class..’ The answer choices include strongly agree, agree, moderately agree moderately disagree, disagree, and strongly disagree. The higher grades, the more helpful the language training programs help learners to enhance language skills! The highest score is 6, and the lowest is 1. ( Frequency ) AverageSD Freshman Oral Training (94) Freshman Writing (94) Sophomore Oral Training (92) Sophomore Writing (93)4.51.1

48 Students' attitudes toward the current language-skill courses Table 3 Students’ attitude toward whether students would recommend this class to other students. Source from: 2008 questionnaire survey on English majors’ attitude toward language training programs. Survey questions ‘I would recommend this class to other students.’ The answer choices include strongly agree, agree, moderately agree, moderately disagree, disagree, and strongly disagree. The higher the grades are, the more possible the students would recommend the class! The highest score is 6, and the lowest is 1. ( Frequency ) AverageSD Freshman Oral Training (93) Freshman Writing (94) Sophomore Oral Training (92) Sophomore Writing (93)4.51.2

49 Students' attitudes toward the current language-skill courses Table 4 Students’ attitude toward whether students would still take the class if it were not required. Source from: 2008 questionnaire survey on English majors’ attitude toward language training programs. Survey questions ‘I would still take this class if it were not required.’ The answer choices include strongly agree, agree, moderately agree, moderately disagree, disagree, and strongly disagree. The higher the grades are, the more possible the students are willing to take the class even if it were not required!. The highest score is 6, and the lowest is 1. ( Frequency ) AverageSD Freshman Oral Training (94) Freshman Writing (93) Sophomore Oral Training (92) Sophomore Writing (92)4.71.1

50 Students' attitudes toward the current language-skill courses Table 5 Students’ attitude toward whether the class should be made more challenging. Source from: 2008 questionnaire survey on English majors’ attitude toward language training programs. Survey questions ‘This class should be made more challenging.’ The answer choices include strongly agree, agree, moderately agree moderately disagree, disagree, and strongly disagree. The higher grades, the more challenging students think of the class! The highest score is 6, and the lowest is 1. ( Frequency ) AverageSD Freshman Oral Training (90) Freshman Writing (89) Sophomore Oral Training (88) Sophomore Writing (90)3.61.0

51 Students' attitudes toward the proposed course reform Table 6 Students’ attitudes toward using English in classes Source from: 2008 questionnaire survey on English majors’ attitudes toward language training programs. The answer choices include ‘Need to increase a lot,’ ‘Need to increase a little,’ ‘Need to decrease a little,’ and ‘Need to decrease a lot.’ Increase or decrease the frequency of using English in classes Increase or decrease the class hours or credits of listening, speaking, reading and writing classes (Frequency)Percentage%(Frequency)Percentage% Increase ( 85)89.5( 69)71.9 No change ( 9)9.4( 23)24.0 Decrease ( 1)1.1( 4)4.1 Total ( 95)100.0( 96)100.0

52 Comments Related to Eliminating Language Training Classes 65 out of 96 informants commented on question 7 46 comments expressed an interest in increasing oral training courses 27 comments expressed an interest in increasing writing courses 3 comments suggested decreasing listening and speaking training courses.

53 Comments Related to Eliminating Language Training Classes 13 comments advised improving language training courses to include curriculum-related, content-related, and teaching-related concerns. Courses need to be practical instead of academic. The four language skills need to be balanced, while extending the language training courses to four years.

54 Table 7 Students’ attitudes toward two designs of curriculum reforms. Source from: 2008 questionnaire survey on English majors’ attitudes toward language training programs. To combine the skills classes with content classes and do not have separate LSRW classes. To keep the skills classes and teach with topics of literature, linguistics, or TESOL. (Frequency)Percentage(Frequency)Percentage Disagree( 21)21.9( 5)5.2 Maybe not( 47)49.0( 17)17.7 No comments( 7)7.3( 20)20.8 Maybe yes( 15)15.6( 45)46.9 Agree( 6)6.3( 9)9.4 Total( 96)100.0( 96)100.0 Students' attitudes toward the proposed course reform

55 Table 8 Correlation examination of curriculum reforms and the proportion of English use. Source from: 2008 questionnaire survey on English majors’ attitudes toward language training programs. The correlation is shown in Pearson’s r. **: p < 0.01 To combine the skills classes with content classes and do not have separate LSRW classes. To eliminate all the LSRW classes 0.302*** Students' attitudes toward the proposed course reform

56 Comments Related to Developing English Skills Through Content Classes 60 of 96 informants commented on Question 9 Overall negative response 10 favorable comments Follow the model in English speaking countries Improve listening ability

57 Comments Related to Developing English Skills Through Content Classes 55 comments negative Too much to cover already (14) Unable to master 4 skills (26) Content classes should be taught in Chinese (9) Class size for a content course is too big or a skill training course (6)

58 Only 43 informants commented on Question are for the proposal To get more professional training To reinforce content knowledge Comments Related to Theme-based Language Training Classes

59 22 comments are against the proposal. Content may be too difficult for students to learn and for teachers to teach. Want to learn practical and diversified content, and to develop global views. 7 are ambivalent. Consider whether students can handle it. Want to keep old program but like the idea as well Comments Related to Theme-based Language Training Classes

60 Table 9 Students’ attitudes toward combining skills classes with content classes. Attitude toward Strong CBI by Specific Course Freshman Oral Training Freshman Writing Sophomore Oral Training Sophomore Writing (frequency) % Strongly Disagree ( 20) 21.5( 24) 25.8( 20) 21.7( 21) 22.6 Disagree ( 21) 22.6 ( 18) 19.6( 23) 24.7 Modestly disagree ( 39) 41.9( 3) 33.3( 38) 41.3( 34) 36.6 Modestly agree ( 9) 9.7 ( 9) 9.8( 11) 11.8 Agree ( 1) 1.1( 7) 7.5( 4) 4.3( 2) 2.2 Strongly agree ( 3) 3.2( 1) 1.1( 3) 3.3( 2) 2.2 Total ( 93) 100.0

61 Table 10 Students’ attitudes toward keeping skill classes and teaching with topics of literature, linguistics, or TESOL. Attitude toward Weak CBI by Specific Course Freshman Oral Training Freshman Writing Sophomore Oral Training Sophomore Writing (frequency) % Strongly Disagree ( 7) 7.4( 6) 6.5( 10) 10.9( 21) 8.5 Disagree ( 15) 16.0( 15) 16.3( 13) 14.1( 23) 11.7 Modestly disagree ( 28) 29.8( 25) 27.2( 29) 31.5( 34) 18.1 Modestly agree ( 19) 20.2( 27) 29.3( 21) 22.8( 11) 28.7 Agree ( 21) 22.3( 19) 20.7( 16) 17.4( 2) 27.7 Strongly agree ( 4) 4.3( 0) 0.0( 3) 3.3( 2) 5.3 Total ( 94) ( 92) ( 93) 100.0

62 Table 11 Survey of students’ future career intentions Source from: 2008 questionnaire survey on English majors’ attitudes toward language training programs. Cross Examination: Future Career Intentions Future Plans Advanced study EmploymentSample size Year Sophomores % ( 24 ) Juniors % ( 38 ) Seniors % 50.0 ( 20 ) In total ( 82 )

63 Table 12 Attitudes toward curriculum reforms from the students who want to pursue further study Attitudes Based on Future Career Intentions – Graduate School To combine the skills classes with content classes and do not have separate LSRW classes. To keep the skills classes and teach with topics of literature, linguistics, or TESOL. (Frequency)Percentage(Frequency)Percentage Disagree( 10)20.8( 1)2.1 Maybe not( 20)41.7( 6)12.5 No comments( 4)8.3( 11)22.9 Maybe yes( 10)20.8( 25)52.1 Agree( 4)8.3( 5)10.4 Total( 48)100.0( 48)100.0

64 Table 13 Attitudes toward curriculum reforms from the students who want to enter the workplace Attitudes Based on Future Career Intentions – Work To combine the skills classes with content classes and do not have separate LSRW classes. To keep the skills classes and teach with topics of literature, linguistics, or TESOL. (Frequency)Percentage(Frequency)Percentage Disagree( 8)23.5( 2)5.9 Maybe not( 20)58.8( 8)23.5 No comments( 3)8.8( 7)20.6 Maybe yes( 3)8.8( 16)47.1 Agree( 0)0.0( 1)2.9 Total( 34)100.0( 34)100.0

65 Cross Examination: Students' Attitudes toward Language Courses Table 14 Students’ opinions on whether language training program equip them well for future career or advanced study Source from: 2008 questionnaire survey on English majors’ attitude toward language training programs. (Frequency)Percentage% Yes, very much.( 19) 19.8 Yes, but just okay.( 42) 43.8 No comments.( 2) 2.1 No, I disagree.( 26) 27.1 No, I seriously disagree.( 7) 7.3 Total( 96) 100.0

66 Table 15 Opinions about credit hours of students who don’t consider the language courses useful. Explanation: χ2= 9.525, d.f.=4, p<0.05 Attitudes of Students Who Consider Language Courses Not Useful Do you feel that more L, S, R, W classes should be added or cut? Add many hours Add some hours No change Reduce some hours Reduce more hours (Sample size) Whether LSRW classes equip them for future career or advanced study? Yes % ( 61 ) No % ( 33 ) Total % ( 94 )

67 Attitudes of Students Who Consider Language Courses Not Useful I would recommend Freshman Oral Training to other students. Strong disagree Disagree Modestly disagree Modestly agree Agree Strongly agree (Sample size) Whether LSRW classes equip them for future career or advanced study? Yes % ( 60 ) No % ( 32 ) Total % ( 92 ) Table 16 Opinions about Freshman Oral Training of students who don’t consider the language courses useful Explanation: χ2= , d.f.=5, p<0.05

68 Attitudes of Students Who Consider Language Courses Not Useful I would recommend Freshman Oral Training to other students. Strong disagree Disagree Modestly disagree Modestly agree Agree Strongly agree (Sample size) Whether LSRW classes equip them for future career or advanced study? Yes % ( 60 ) No % ( 33 ) Total % ( 93 ) Table 17 Opinions about Freshman Writing of students who don’t consider the language courses useful Explanation: χ2= , d.f.=5, p<0.05

69 Table 18 Opinions about difficulty level of Freshman Writing of students who don’t consider the language courses useful??? Explanation: χ2= , d.f.= 4, p<0.05 Attitudes of Students Who Consider Language Courses Not Useful I would recommend Freshman Oral Training to other students. Strong disagree Disagree Modestly disagree Modestly agree Agree Strongly agree (Sample size) Whether LSRW classes equip them for future career or advanced study? Yes % ( 57 ) No % ( 31 ) Total % ( 88 )

70 Comments Related to How Student Achievement Can Improve Summary of Comments More classes More practical content More chances to speak

71 Barriers to change ???? Politics Faculty doesn’t want to change Lack of communication among those who are involved in change Barriers to change info

72 Conclusion/Pedagogical Suggestions for treatment A. summary of the result B. implications C. limitations D. suggested future study E. concluding remarks

73 Summary of Findings A slight majority of the students plan to go to graduate school. However this result is skewed by 75% of sophomores indicating that they intend to go to graduate school. If only junior and senior data is tabulated, the breakdown is almost equal.

74 Summary of Findings The majority of students hold a positive attitude toward our language skills training program. Students are more satisfied with the writing classes than the oral training classes. Students are more satisfied with the sophomore classes than the freshman classes. Students want to use more English in class, and they want to have more language training classes.

75 Summary of Findings Students are strongly against combining language training classes with content classes. Students are slightly in favor of having language training classes taught with Linguistics, Literature, and TESOL.

76 Summary of Findings Students who are dissatisfied with the current language training program still want to increase the number of language training courses. Students that are dissatisfied with the current language training program would not recommend their freshman oral training and writing classes.

77 Suggestions Develop a unified and consistent curriculum, while remaining flexible to teachers’ course designs. Improve oral training classes. Teachers should have diversified topics. Establish writing center and chat rooms. Encourage use of self-access center.

78 Limitations of research Researchers not in position to make decisions. Some teachers were suspicious of the purpose of the survey. Inconsistent quality of feedback due to different survey distribution times. Teacher feedback not included.


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