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Osceola District Schools Laboratory Hygiene Program.

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1 Osceola District Schools Laboratory Hygiene Program

2 Module 6: Personal Protective Equipment and Safety Systems

3 LAB SAFETY EQUIPMENT A thorough understanding of safety equipment is essential to the any mitigation or damage control efforts a teacher might take. Fire extinguishers Safety showers Eyewash station Fume hoods Flammable, corrosive, and explosive chemicals storage Safety shields

4 Fire Extinguishers In order to select the proper extinguisher it is important to examine how fire can be controlled. There are essentially four methods. Smothering Cooling Removing the fuel Inhibiting the chemical chain reaction

5 Fire Extinguishers Methods of extinguishment. Smothering - few extinguishing agents put the fire out by smothering. The notable exception is the Carbon Dioxide extinguisher. In fact its limited effectiveness is because it is a gas trying to displace another gas (Oxygen). Another agent that acts to smother fires is a Halon replacement gas called FM-200. Some people believe that dry chemicals extinguish the fire by smothering but this simply isn’t true. We know this because dry chemicals extinguish the fire even if the do not settle on the burning material.FM-200

6 Fire Extinguishers Methods of extinguishment. Cooling is also not a very common method of extinguishing small fires. It is the primary method of extinguishing large fire however. Water is the agent the does most of this kind of work. Water applied properly to burning wood or paper lowers the temperature the material below its ignition point.

7 Fire Extinguishers Methods of extinguishment. Removal of the Fuel is accomplished by certain fire extinguishers notably aqueous film forming foam on petrochemicals and bicarbonates on cooking grease. In both cases the agent forms a “lid” on the surface of the material and separates it from heat and air. Since the “lid” is on the fuel, no vapors are released. No vapors, no fuel, no fire.

8 Fire Extinguishers Methods of extinguishment. Inhibiting the chemical chain reaction is the Holy Grail of extinguishing agents. Discovered by Dr. Walter M. Haessler these agents substitute a desirable chemical chain reaction for the oxidation process. Monoammonium phosphate dry chemical and vaporizing gas extinguishers are the most common. Halon was the most popular until international restriction of chlorofluorocarbons limited its production.

9 Review of Fire Classes A Trash Wood Paper C Electrical Equipment B Liquids Grease D COMBUSTIBLE METALS D wood cloth paper rubber many plastics gasoline oil grease tar oil-based paint lacquer flammable gases energized electrical equipment magnesium sodium potassium titanium zirconium other flammable metals

10 Fire Extinguisher Anatomy DISCHARGE HOSE DISCHARGE NOZZLE DISCHARGE ORIFICE BODY DATA PLATE CARRYING HANDLE PRESSURE GAUGE (not found on CO 2 extinguishers) DISCHARGE LEVER DISCHARGE LOCKING PIN AND SEAL

11 Fire Extinguisher Types Class “A” fires only. 2.5 gal. water at psi (up to 1 minute discharge time). Has pressure gauge to allow visual capacity check ft. maximum effective range. Can be started and stopped as necessary. cooling Extinguishes by cooling burning material below the ignition point. PRESSURIZED WATER

12 Fire Extinguisher Types (cont.) Class “B” or “C” fires lb. of CO 2 gas at psi (8-30 seconds discharge time). NO Has NO pressure gauge-- capacity verified by weight. 3-8 ft. maximum effective range. smothering Extinguishes by smothering burning materials. decreases Effectiveness decreases as temperature of burning material increases. CARBON DIOXIDE (CO 2 )

13 Fire Extinguisher Types Class “A”, “B”, or “C” fires lb. dry chemical (monoammonium phosphate) pressurized to psi by nitrogen gas (8-25 seconds discharge time). Has pressure gauge to allow visual capacity check ft. maximum effective range. Extinguishes by inhibiting the chemical chain reaction. MULTIPURPOSE DRY CHEMICAL

14 Fire Extinguisher Types (cont.) Class “A”, “B”, or “C” fires lb. Gas Type (pressurized liquid) released as vapor (8-18 seconds discharge time). Has pressure gauge to allow visual capacity check ft. maximum effective range. Works best in confined area--ideal for electronics fire due to lack of residue. Inergen replaced Halon.Inergen inhibiting the chemical chain reaction Extinguishes by inhibiting the chemical chain reaction VAPORIZING GASES

15 Fire Extinguisher Types (cont.) Class “D” combustible metal fires only. 30 lb. pressurized dry powder optimized for specific combustible metal (also available in bulk containers for hand scooping onto fire to extinguish). 6-8 ft. maximum effective range. To activate, must first open nitrogen cylinder on back to pressurize body. COMBUSTIBLE METAL D COMBUSTIBLE METALS

16 Firefighting Decision Criteria Know Know school emergency procedures and evacuation routes. Know Know locations of extinguishers in your area and how to use them. Alwaysregardless Always sound the alarm regardless of fire size. Avoid Avoid smoky conditions. Ensure Ensure area is evacuated. Don’t Don’t attempt to fight unless: Alarm is sounded. Fire is small and contained. You have safe egress route (can be reached without exposure to fire). Available extinguishers are rated for size and type of fire. evacuate! If in doubt, evacuate!

17 Fire Extinguishers FLDOE requirements along with those of the State Fire Marshal, Osceola County and other fire authorities should ensure that the right kind of fire extinguisher is located within a short travel distance to any fire in your lab. Should you find it not to be functioning or should you need a 2 nd extinguisher use caution in its selection.

18 Fire Blankets How to use a Fire Blanket 1) Remove the fire blanket from its envelope by grasping the two protruding tags and pulling. 2) How to hold the fire blanket: Grasp one edge of the blanket with each of your hands near a corner. Your thumbs should be on your side of the blanket and your fingers on the side away from you;. ie, palms downward Turn the palms towards each other and continue to turn the hands in that direction until the palms are facing upwards. Lift the arms so that the weight of the blanket is on the tips of the fingers. Turn the hands (fingers still pointing to the ceiling) so that the palms are toward the fire. This action will result in a section of the blanket curling round to protect your hands. Keep your arms up so the blanket will shield your face.

19 Fire Blankets How to use a Fire Blanket 3)Stand partly side-on to the fire so that one leg is forward and the other back. 4) Move slowly and carefully towards the fire. 5) Let the bottom of the fire blanket touch the side of the bench top or container. 6) Still moving your arms forward, carefully lower the blanket over the top of the container. 7) Place a metal tray or other flat solid object on top of the fire blanket over the mouth of the container.

20 Fire Blankets How to use a Fire Blanket IMPORTANT NOTES: If the burning container is over a heating element of any kind, turn off the electricity or gas - preferably, if safe to do so, before extinguishing. Do not look over the top of the blanket at the fire. Do not attempt to throw the blanket over the fire.

21 Chemical Spills on Students or Staff Spills of chemicals that are reactive to human skin or eye contact with chemicals require fast action in order to prevent loss of sight or serious skin damage. The tool with which all labs are equipped to aid in this are showers and eyewash stations.

22 Using An Eye Wash Station During An Emergency: Hold eyelids open using the thumb and index finger to help ensure that effective rinsing has occurred behind the eyelid. It is normal to close eyes tightly when splashed, but this will prevent water or eye solution from rinsing and washing the chemical out. Eyelids must be held open. Practice of this procedure is encouraged to help familiarize potential users with the feel of rinsing. It will also make it easier for the user to react both promptly and properly to an emergency situation.

23 Eye/Face Washing Procedures: Always wash from the outside edges of the eyes to the inside; this will help to avoid washing the chemicals back into the eyes or into an unaffected eye. Water or eye solution should NOT be directly aimed onto the eyeball, but aimed at the base of the nose. Velocity of the stream of water must be such that injury to the eye is avoided. Flush eyes and eyelids with water or eye solution for a minimum of 15 minutes. “Roll” eyes around to ensure full rinsing.

24 Procedure Continued: Contact lenses must be removed as soon as possible to ensure that chemicals are not trapped behind the lenses and then the eyes can be completely rinsed of any harmful chemicals. Medical attention should be sought immediately! Ideally another person in the lab should make contact with responders or dial 911. The sooner medical attention can be given, the chances of not sustaining permanent damage or blindness is greatly improved. Never Use showers or eyewash with water reactive materials.

25 Counter Mounted Eye Wash Plumbed eye wash unit. Must be between 33 to 45 inches from the floor. Minimum distance of 6 inches from the wall or other obstructions.

26 Plumbed Eye Wash This unit is built into the wall. To activate, the handle is pulled down and valve is activated.

27 Self Contained Eye Wash This unit must hold enough water to dispense a minimum of 0.4 gallons per minute (gpm) for a minimum of 15 minutes. Typically contain additives to protect against bacteria, fungus, and algae available. Manufacturer’s fluid change-out schedules shall be rigidly followed.

28 Dousing Shower with Floor Drain When a student or staff member is splashed with a chemical the assumption should be that it is dangerous until otherwise proven. Plan for the use of the shower. Never block the routes to showers and don’t worry about flooding. The removal and dilution of the chemical is the key in this situation.

29 Examples of Poor Shower Maintenance Blocked Path Improper Storage Trip Hazards

30 Dousing Showers Procedures  Remove contaminated clothing.  Allow copious amounts of water on affected area for a minimum of 15 minutes.  Consult MSDS for emergency procedures.  Clear the room as soon as practicable.  Arrange for medical treatment and replacement clothing or blankets.

31 Example of Combination Equipment Combination units Interconnected assembly of emergency equipment (eye wash and safety shower) supplied by a single source of flushing fluid.

32 Maintenance Of Eye Wash and Safety Shower: All shower units must be tested to verify operation. It is recommended that showers be activated monthly to verify operation and to flush lines. This is easy enough to accomplish and should be done routinely. If you do not feel confident in performing a test like this, ask maintenance to do it. Test Regularly

33 PPE The Last Line of Defense. Personal Protective Equipment is the last opportunity we have to protect the student and or teacher from the effects of a chemical. The PPE must be the right type, of the right material with the right fit or it is useless. Students must be taught when and how to donn goggles, gloves, aprons etc and how they are doffed to avoid contamination.

34 PPE TRAINING When PPE is necessary What type PPE is necessary How PPE is to be worn and adjusted PPE limitations How to maintain PPE Useful life of the PPE Proper disposal of PPE

35 Eye-protective devices Eye-protective devices should be worn by students, teachers, and visitors in classes at any time at which the individual is engaged in or observing an activity or the use of hazardous substances likely to cause injury to the eyes. Eye protection as well as many forms of PPE present challenges. It is important that the right eyewear be used. Face Shields have real advantages over goggles in that the protect the entire face. Consider the hazard before selecting the PPE.

36 Eye-protective devices Glass When selecting protective eyewear a basic consideration is of what material should they be made? Glass lenses provide good scratch resistance. they can withstand chemical exposure and they can accommodate a large number of prescriptions

37 Plastic and polycarbonate Plastic has the advantage of being light weight and they are less likely to fog up. Some newer plastic protective eyewear will accommodate prescriptions but most do not. Plastic is also more affordable than glass. Another limitation of plastic is that it is not very scratch resistant. They tend to be more stylish and that gets people to wear them.

38 Safety Glasses Should Be Shielded Regardless of the material, all safety glasses must be shielded from the sides. Shielding provides better protection from flying debris and it provides protection against chemicals which may be suspended in the air.

39 Goggles Goggles provide greater protection from splashes, liquids and dusts than shielded safety glasses. They must be worn correctly for maximum benefit. They should fit tightly against your face and the straps should not dangle from the sides. Goggles provide the best protection against liquid pesticides and other toxic chemicals. Fogging can be a problem so it is a good idea to treat them with a defogging agent.

40 Face shields Face shields are used where you have a very high chance of exposure to an airborne substance. A face shield is not enough to protect your eyes by itself; It should be worn with approved safety glasses. They fog less and offer greater visibility, even with safety glasses, than goggles. If splashes are expected, use a face shield.

41 Tips to Protect Your Eyes and Those of Your Students Wear goggles or a face shield around chemical gases or vapors, liquid chemicals, acids, or caustics. Turn containers away from the face when opening. Remove protective eye wear only after done with the experiment and the chemicals. Don’t use worn or scratched lens, they discourage use and impair vision. Replace cracked, pitted or damaged goggles or glasses Be certain that protective eye wear is approved for the chemicals you are using.

42 Using Gloves in the Lab When handling chemicals, it is recommended that the correct gloves be used to protect the worker from accidental spills or contamination. If the gloves become contaminated they should be removed and discarded as soon as possible. There is no glove currently available that will protect a worker against all chemicals. Protection of the hands when working with solvents, detergents, or any hazardous material is essential in the defense of the body against contamination. Exposure of the hands to a potentially hazardous chemical could result in burns, chafing of the skin due to extraction of essential oils ("de-fatting"), or dermatitis.

43 Using Gloves in the Lab The skin could also become sensitized to the chemical and once sensitized, could react to lesser quantities of chemicals than otherwise would have any effect. Proper selection of the glove material is essential to the performance of the glove as a barrier to chemicals. Several properties of both the glove material and the chemical with which it is to be used should influence the choice of the glove. Some of these properties include: permeability of the glove material, breakthrough time of the chemical, temperature of the chemical, thickness of the glove material, and the amount of the chemical that can be absorbed by the glove material (solubility effect).

44 Using Gloves in the Lab Glove materials vary widely in respect to these properties; for instance, neoprene is good for protection against most common oils, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and certain other solvents, but is unsatisfactory for use against aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, ketones, and many other solvents. Gloves of various types are available and should be chosen for each specific job for compatibility and breakthrough characteristics. An excellent information is Guidelines for the Selection of Chemical Protective Clothing published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) or information provided by glove manufacturers.

45 Using Aprons in the Lab Some operations in the laboratory, like washing glassware, require the handling of relatively large quantities of corrosive liquids in open containers. To protect clothing in such operations, plastic or rubber aprons may be supplied. A high-necked, calf- or ankle-length, rubberized laboratory apron or a long-sleeved, calf- or ankle-length, chemical- and fire-resistant laboratory coat should be worn anytime laboratory manipulation or experimentation is being conducted. Always wear long-sleeved and long-legged clothing; do not wear short-sleeved shirts, short trousers, or short skirts.

46 Care and Maintenance of PPE Florida Statutes require “Personal protection devices which come in contact with the skin shall be sanitized after each use” FL 6A After use, protective eyewear must be cleaned. The exception is if each student is issued their own PPE to use for the entire class. Then they would have to be sanitized before re-issue. Soap and warm water are adequate for cleaning.

47 Protective Clothing is an important component of safety in the laboratory. It is the last line of defense in protecting students and teachers from exposure. Safety systems are in place to protect teachers and students during laboratory work. These systems require maintenance and safe procedures as backup since it is possible to negate their effectiveness through carelessness. Summary

48 End of Module Go to the Quiz References

49 ASE (1996) Safeguards in the School Laboratory (10th ed..), Hatfield: ASE. Borrows, P. (1992) ‘Safety in secondary schools’, in Hull, R. (ed.), ASE Secondary Science Teachers’ Handbook, Hemel Hempstead: Simon & Shuster. (This highlights the common accidents in labs most of which involve chemicals in the eye or mouth or on the body; and describes five ‘main danger areas’ such as burns from alcohol fires and alkali metal explosions.) More recently Borrows has written: ‘Safety in science education’, in Ratcliffe, M. (ed.) (1998). DfEE (1996) Safety in Science Education, London: HMSO. Everett, K. and Jenkins, E. (1991) A Safety Handbook for Science Teachers, London: John Murray. The MSDS Hyperglossary at References

50 29 CFR – OSHA’s Laboratory Standard also known as Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1910, Subpart Z, Section 1450 Action Level – a concentration designated in 29 CFR part 1910 for a specific substance, calculated as an eight hour-time weighted average (TWA), which initiates certain required activities such as exposure monitoring and medical surveillance. Action levels are generally set at one half the PEL but the action level may vary from standard to standard. Acute toxicity – is the ability of a chemical to cause a harmful effect such as damage to a target organ or death after a single exposure or an exposure of short duration. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) – a non-profit organization consisting of a community of professionals advancing worker health and safety through education and the development and dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge. The ACGIH develops and publishes recommended occupational exposure limits each year called TLVs for hundreds of chemicals, physical agents and biological exposure indices. American National Standard Institute (ANSI) – a non-profit organization that administers and coordinates the US voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system. Biological Materials – Biological or biohazardous materials include all infectious organisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, etc.) that can cause disease in humans or cause significant environmental or agricultural impact. Carcinogen - A substance capable of causing cancer. Carcinogens are chronically toxic substances; that is, they cause damage after repeated or long-duration exposure, and their effects may become evident only after a long latency period. Glossary Back to Module

51 CAS # - Chemical Abstracts Number – a unique number assigned to a chemical by the Chemical Abstracts Service. CFR – Code of Federal Regulations – contains the listings of all US Federal regulations. The CFR, compiled by the Office of the Federal Register, is divided into 50 titles, which cover broad areas subject to Federal regulation. Chemical Hygiene Officer – an employee designated by the employer who is qualified by training or experience to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan. Note that these duties can be in addition to the other job functions the employee performs in the laboratory. Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) – a plan that addresses specific hazards in the laboratory and is required by OSHA’s Laboratory Standard Corrosive – a substance which causes damage to skin, eyes or other parts of the body on contact. Concentrated acids are examples of corrosive substances. Embryotoxin – a substance which retards the growth or affects the development of an unborn child up to and including deformities and death. Mercury compounds, certain heavy metals, aflatoxin, formamide, and radiation are known embryotoxins. Explosive – means a chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature. Face velocity – the average velocity of air drawn through the face of a chemical fume hood and generally calculated as the total volumetric exhaust flow rate for the hood divided by the area of the open face, less an adjustment for hood air leakage. Glossary Back to Module

52 Irritant – a chemical which may cause reversible inflammation upon contact. Laboratory -Any facility where the "laboratory use of potentially hazardous chemicals" occurs. It is a room where relatively small quantities of potentially hazardous chemicals are used during scientific experimentation. Flammable – means a chemical that falls into one of the following categories: aerosol flammable is an aerosol that when tested by the method in 16 CFR , yields a flame protection exceeding 18 inches at full valve opening, or a flashback (a flame extending back to the valve) at any degree of valve opening gas flammable is a gas that at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of 13% by volume or less or a gas that at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a range of flammable mixtures with air wider than 12% by volume, regardless of the lower limit. liquid flammable means any liquid having a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 100°C or higher, the total of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture. solid flammable means a solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in (a), that is liable to cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious hazard. A chemical will be considered a flammable solid if, when tested by the method described in 16 CFR , it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than one-tenth of an inch per second along its major axis. Glossary Back to Module

53 FM 200 – a Halon replacement extinguishing agent which is a chemical blend (heptafluoropropane), stored as a liquid within the agent cylinder similar to that of Halon-type cylinders. It will not corrode sensitive electronic equipment, and contains no particulates or oily residues. In fact, it leaves very little residue and is a quite popular extinguishing agent in use today for the protection of computer rooms. Fume Hood - a laboratory device, enclosed on five sides with a moveable sash or fixed partial enclosure on the remaining side; constructed and maintained to draw air from the laboratory and to prevent or minimize the escape of air contaminants into the laboratory; and allows chemical manipulations to be conducted in the enclosure without insertion of any portion of the employee’s body other than hands and arms. Hazardous chemical – the OSHA definition is a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term "health hazard" includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic systems, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes. Hazard Communication Standard – 29 CFR was first enacted on November 25, 1983, by the OSHA. It was later modified with minor changes and technical amendments to take effect March 11, The purpose of the standard is to ensure that chemical hazards in the workplace are identified and evaluated, and that information concerning these hazards is communicated through MSDSs and labels. This standard is also known as the Right-to-Know Law. Glossary Back to Module

54 HEPA - high efficiency particulate air filter – is a filter that is manufactured, tested and certified to meet applicable construction and efficiency standards for high-efficiency filters. The filters are manufactured from an ultra-fine glass-fiber medium designed to capture microscopic particles that can easily pass through most other filters by a combination of diffusion, interception, and inertial impaction. Health Hazard - means a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. Inergen - It is an inert gas used for fire extinguishment. It is a mixture of three naturally occurring atmospheric gases: 52% nitrogen, 40% argon, and 8% CO 2. The Inergen gas curtails and extinguishes fire by lowering the oxygen content beneath the level that supports combustion. But it should be noted that due to the CO 2 present in Inergen, the brain continues to receive the same amount of oxygen in an Inergen atmosphere as it would in a normal atmosphere, for reasonable periods of time. Laboratory Scale - Working with substances in which the containers used for reactions, transfers, and other handling of substances are designed to be easily and safely manipulated by one person. Laboratory Standard – a standard (29 CFR ) issued by OSHA addressing occupational exposures to hazardous chemicals in the laboratory. All laboratories must comply with this standard. Glossary Back to Module

55 Laboratory use of Potentially Hazardous Chemicals - the handling or use of such chemicals in which all of the following conditions are met: 1) Use of laboratory scale. 2) Multiple chemical procedures or chemicals used. 3) Protective laboratory practices and equipment are available and in common use to minimize the potential for student/teacher exposure to hazardous chemicals. LC50 or lethal concentration 50 – this is a measure of toxicity which corresponds to the concentration in air that kills 50% of the test population. Note that most estimates of human toxicity are based on animal studies, which may or may not relate to human toxicity. LD50 or lethal dose 50 – this is a measure of toxicity which corresponds to the dose required to kill 50% of the test population. Note that most estimates of human toxicity are based on animal studies, which may or may not relate to human toxicity. The LD50 is usually measured in milligrams of the material per kilogram of body weight of the test animal. To estimate a lethal dose for a human based on animal tests, the LD50 must be multiplied by the weight of an average person. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) – is a well-established document for disseminating health and safety information about chemical products to employees, customers, emergency responders, and the public. Information contained in the MSDS includes potential health, safety, and environmental hazards, safe handling practices, and applicable regulatory information. Glossary Back to Module

56 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) private non-profit organization, is the leading authoritative source of technical background, data, and consumer advice on fire protection, problems and prevention Organic peroxide - an organic compound that contains the bivalent -OO- structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an organic radical. Peroxides can be very dangerous materials and may be shock and thermal sensitive. They are also strong oxidizers. OSHA – Occupational Safety & Health Administration is part of the US Department of Labor. Its mission is to save lives, prevent injuries and protect the health of America's workers. Particularly hazardous substance – is defined by OSHA in the Laboratory Standard and includes “select carcinogens” (strongly indicative of causing cancer in humans), reproductive toxins, and substances which have a high degree of acute toxicity. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) - which represents the maximum amount or concentration of a substance that a worker may be exposed to under OSHA regulations. There are ceiling values (at no time should this value be exceeded) and 8-hour time weighted averages (an average value of exposure over the course of an 8 hour work shift) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – is all clothing and other work accessories designed to create a barrier against workplace hazards. Examples include safety goggles, respirators, lab coats, etc. Glossary Back to Module

57 Pyrophoric – a pyrophoric material is one that ignites spontaneously in air and is derived from the Greek word meaning “fire-bearing”. Many of these materials will also react vigorously with water or high humidity and ignite upon contact. Physical Hazard – A hazard exhibited by certain chemicals due to their physical properties. These chemicals fall into the following classes: combustible liquids, compressed gases, explosives, flammable liquids or solids, organic peroxide, oxidizers, pyrophoric materials, and unstable (reactive) or water reactive materials. Reproductive toxins – per OSHA any chemical that affects the reproductive chemicals which affect the reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage/mutations and effects on fetuses (teratogenesis). Select carcinogens – per OSHA any substance that meets one of the following criteria: regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen listed under the category, “known to be carcinogens” in the Annual Report on Carcinogens published in the latest edition by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) listed under Group 1 (“carcinogenic to humans”) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs (IARC) listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC or under the category, “reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens” by NTP and causes statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals in accordance with any of the following criteria: after inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for a significant portion of a lifetime to dosages of less than 10 mg/m3, after repeated skin application of less than 300 mg/kg of body weight per week, or after oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Glossary Back to Module

58 Sensitizer – a chemical which may lead to the development of allergic reactions after repeated exposure. Short term exposure limit (STEL) - which is the concentration employees can be exposed to continuously for a short period of time without suffering from irritation, chronic or irreversible tissue damage, or narcosis of sufficient degree to increase the likelihood of accidental injury, impair self-rescue or materially reduce work efficiency. Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) – is a document that describes the operations, analyses, or actions that are commonly accepted methods or the laboratory prescribed procedures for performing certain routine or repetitive tasks. Target Organ - indicate which bodily organs are most likely to be affected by exposure to a substance. Certain chemicals may bio-concentrate in the liver while other target the brain. Threshold Limit Values (TLV) – are airborne concentrations devised by the ACGIH that represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be exposed day after day with no adverse effect. TLVs are advisory exposure guidelines, not legal standards, that are based on evidence from industrial experience, animal studies, or human studies when they exist. There are three different types of TLV's: Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA), Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and Ceiling (TLV-C). Tort Law – is the law of liability and negligence. It involves that plaintiff who allegedly has been wronged and the defendant who is claimed to have perpetrated the injustice. Tort law deals with issues of property and personal injury law. Mass tort is the process of suing a major defendant on behalf of a large number of plaintiffs. Law suits involving drugs such as Vioxx are examples. Glossary Back to Module

59 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) – is a procedure (Method 1311) performed on a sample within the laboratory to determine whether or not a waste is considered hazardous. A sample is extracted with a buffered acid and the resulting extraction fluid or leachate approximates the fluid that would leach from the sample if it were in a landfill. Toxicity Characteristic (TC) – regulatory limits established for 39 compounds. If a waste analyzed via the TCLP procedure detects any of these compounds above the regulatory limits then the waste is said to exhibit the toxicity characteristic. Water Reactive - these substances are dangerous when wet because they undergo a chemical reaction with water. This reaction may release a gas that is either flammable or presents a toxic health hazard. In addition, the heat generated when water contacts such materials is often enough for the item to spontaneously combust or explode. Glossary Back to Module

60 Quiz Six 1. Fires involving flammable liquids are best extinguished using: a. Pressurized Water. b. Carbon Dioxide. c. Multi-purpose dry chemical. d. Wet chemical. Back to Start Next Question

61 Quiz Six 2. The fire extinguisher that actually puts the fire out by smothering is the: a. ABC Dry Chemical b. Carbon Dioxide c. Pressurized Water d. Vaporizing Gas Back to Start Next Question

62 Quiz Six 3. Foam fire extinguishers extinguish a flammable liquid fire by: a. Placing a “lid” on the fuel separating it from the fire. b. Using a process called sublimation c. Reducing the temperature of the burning material d. Smothering the fire e. None of the above. Back to Start Next Question

63 Quiz Six 4. Halon fire extinguishers were the most popular kind of vaporizing gas extinguisher until: a. The price of monoammonium phosphate became too high b. The price of bromotrifluoromethane increased c. International restrictions were applied to chlorofluorocarbons d. It became know that it was extremely carcinogenic Back to Start Next Question

64 Quiz Six 5. The fire extinguisher type that has no pressure gauge is the: a. ABC Dry Chemical b. Carbon Dioxide c. Pressurized Water d. Vaporizing Gas Back to Start Next Question

65 Quiz Six 6. One step that must be remembered when washing chemicals from a students eyes is to always: a. Use only sterile water. b. Hold the eyelids open. c. Wash from the inside edges to the outside. d. Flush the eyes for a minimum of five minutes e. All of the above. Back to Start Next Question

66 Quiz Six 7. When a student is splashed with a chemical the assumption should be that: a. There was some kind of horseplay involved. b. The chemical was dangerous. c. The chemical was one involved in the current activity. d. There will be a law suit. Back to Start Next Question

67 Quiz Six 8. All showers must be tested to verify operation. They show be activated at least: a. Annually b. Semiannually c. Monthly d. Weekly e. None of the above Back to Start Next Question

68 Quiz Six 9. When selecting protective eyewear a basic consideration should be: a. Of what material should the eyewear be made. b. Whether or not they have UV protection. c. How many shades that come in. d. Do these goggles make me look fat? e. All of the above. Back to Start Next Question

69 Quiz Six 10. Which of the items listed below should be considered when selecting a chemically resistant glove? a. Permeability. b. Breakthrough Time. c. The temperature of the chemical. d. A and B are correct. e. All of the above. Back to Start Next Question

70 Quiz Six 11. Florida Statutes require that personal protection devices that come in contact with the skin must be: a. Latex. b. Viton. c. Sterilized. d. Sanitized. e. Disposed of. Back to Start Next Question

71 Quiz Six 12. Protective Clothing should be considered: a. The most important system we have to protect students. b. A cost effective way of preventing accidents. c. An engineering solution to the hazards in the lab. d. The last line of defense in protecting students. e. All of the above. Back to Start Finished

72 That’s Right! Return to Quiz

73 That’s Incorrect Return to Quiz

74 That’s Not the Best Answer Return to Quiz

75 You have Finished Module Six Good Job!


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