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STRUCTURES by Jaime R. Rico.

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1 STRUCTURES by Jaime R. Rico

2 Are these structures?

3 So, what is a structure? Something that protects someone or something
Something that supports s.o. or s.t. Something that contains s.o. or s.t Something that…

4 Some concepts A force is a push or pull that tends to cause an object to change its movement or shape A load is an external force which acts on a structure. (e.g. weight) An stress is an internal force which acts on a structure.

A structure is an arrangement of elements that resists loads. A structure is an element or a set (group) of elements that withstand (support) loads without breaking or distorting (disforming) excessively (too much).

6 What does it mean to withstand a load?
Structures withstand loads if they can support all the forces acting on them without collapsing or breaking. Snail Shell,

7 TYPES OF LOADS Remember that a load is an external force which acts on a structure. Loads are classified in: Static (or Death) load: is a permanent force, acting on a structure. This includes the weight of the structure itself and the non-moving parts it supports. Dynamic (or Live) load: is a changing, or non-permanent force acting on a structure. This includes the force of the wind and the weight of things that are in, or on a structure.


9 TYPES OF STRUCTURES We can classified them attending to their origin.
Natural structures: exist in the Nature. Manufactured structures: are built by people. Manufactured

10 NATURAL STRUCTURES Are not made by people.
Occur naturally in the environment. Examples: Skeleton Nest Egg shell

Are built by people. Are classified in: Mass structures Frame structures Shell structures Solid (mass): made almost entirely of matter. Frame: made of separate members (usually thin pieces) put together. Shell: encloses or contains its contents

12 MASS STRUCTURES Are made piling up material Examples: Pyramid Dam Wall



15 WALLS Brick walls, castles, Great Wall in CHina

16 CASTLES Castillo de Bellver (Palma de Mallorca, Jovellanos), Chateau du , Neuschwanstein

17 FRAME STRUCTURES Are made from bars joined together to form a 'framework‘ Most of the inside part of the structure is empty space Are the most common construction choice. Why? because they are relatively easy to design and build, and inexpensive to manufacture,



20 SHELL STRUCTURES Use a thin, carefully shaped, outer layer of material, to provide their strength and rigidity The shape of a shell structure spreads forces throughout the whole structure Every part of the structure supports only a small part of the load, giving it its strength. PROS (Advantages): Great containers (empty) + Use very little material (thin layer) CONS (Disadv.): A tiny weakness or imperfection on the covering can cause the whole structure to fail.


22 SHELL-HOUSE Kotaro Ide. Karuizawa 2008 (Japón). Arquitectura orgánica.



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