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LITERACY MISIC Institute Sue Z. Beers. Common Core State Standards New Generation State Assessments.

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Presentation on theme: "LITERACY MISIC Institute Sue Z. Beers. Common Core State Standards New Generation State Assessments."— Presentation transcript:

1 LITERACY MISIC Institute Sue Z. Beers

2 Common Core State Standards New Generation State Assessments

3 June 2009 Beginning of CCSS Initiative March 2010 K-12 Draft Released for Public Comment June 2010 Formal Release of K-12 CCSS Dec. 2011 46 States Have Adopted CCSS 2014 - 2015 Participating States Administer New CCSS Assessments Implementation is NOW!



6 Recognize this Person? nYVOg



9 What Now? What Should? Now What?





14 The Common Core State Standards for ELA / Literacy


16 Don’t start by looking at each tree – each standard…

17 Look at the BIG picture – the whole forest!

18 College and Career Standards ANCHOR the learning we want students to achieve…


20 Three main sections K-5 (cross-disciplinary) 6-12 English Language Arts 6-12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

21 Three appendices A: Research and evidence; glossary of key terms (Appendix A) B: Reading text exemplars; sample performance tasks (Appendix B) C: Annotated student writing samples (Appendix C)

22  Standards define year-end expectations that lead to college and career readiness.  Focus on results rather than means.  Integrated model of literacy  Research and media skills blended into the standards  Shared responsibility for literacy development  Focus and coherence in instruction and assessment.


24 What is NOT in the Standards…  How teachers should teach  All that can or should be taught  The nature of advanced work beyond the core  The interventions needed for students well below grade level  The full range of support for English language learners and students with special needs  Everything needed to be college and career ready

25 Shifts…

26 ◦ Shift to higher-level thinking skills ◦ Increasing focus on informational text ◦ Not coverage, but depth and focus: RIGOR ◦ Writing about texts, citing sources

27 CCSS give us the chance to delete – to get rid of content and activities that don’t lead students to be college and career ready.

28 Organized in four key areas: 1. Key Ideas and Details 2. Craft and Structure 3. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 4. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

29 Key Ideas and Details 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

30 Craft and Structure 4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. 5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

31 Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. 8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

32 Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

33 1. Balance of Information and Literary Text (K-5) 2. Content Area Literacy (6-12) 3. Appropriately complex text 4. Text-dependent questions 5. Writing to inform/argue based on evidence 6. Academic vocabulary vs. domain-specific vocabulary ELA & Literacy: 6 Shifts Condensed into 3 Shifts 1. Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction and informational texts. 2. Reading and writing grounded in evidence from text. 3. Regular practice with complex text and its academic vocabulary.

34 ELA / LiteracyMathematics

35 SEE NOT SEE  Scientific and historical texts are given the same time and weight as literary text.  Informational text in elementary comprise 50% of text used in ELA, science, social studies and the arts; in middle school, informational texts comprise 55%; in high school, informational text comprise at least 70%.  Informational texts are selected to help students deepen their understanding of topics and themes over time.  Literature is the sole or vast majority of text used in ELA classes.  All or majority of text is narrative in structure.  Texts do not logically develop learning about a specific topic or theme.

36  Harder for students to comprehend informational text than narrative text  Much of our knowledge base comes from info text  Academic vocabulary comes largely from info text  Makes up 80% of the required reading in college/ workplace  Yet students are asked to read 7-15% of it in elementary and middle school

37 Grade Literary Informational 4 50% 8 45% 55% 12 30% 70%

38 Literary Nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and Technical Texts  Biographies and autobiographies  Primary sources  Books about history, social studies, science, and the arts  Technical texts, including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps  Digital sources on a range of topics


40 Appendix B: Text Exemplars

41 Read like a detective! Use clues / evidence from text Make non-trivial inferences based on that evidence Use information from multiple sources within or between text to make arguments

42 +√0+√0 Fully prepared/We are ready to go! We have started but have more work to do. We have yet to tackle this/We have more to learn.

43  All content area teachers explicitly teach reading and writing strategies essential to learning and communicating their discipline.  Students are asked questions that give them the opportunity to share evidence from text.  Activities strengthen students’ listening skills as well as their speaking skills.  Students write frequently about what they are reading and learning, drawing evidence in the text.  Reading and writing strategies are presented consistently across all content areas.  Multiple texts, presented in diverse formats, are used to integrate information on a given topic.  Primary sources of information are used widely.  Teachers present the information in the text rather than expecting students to read for understanding.  Text is used as a reference rather than a source of information.  No connection between the reading and writing assignment.  No instruction is provided on reading or writing strategies appropriate to the content area.  A single text is used for all reading assignments. SEE NOT SEE

44 Reading critical to building knowledge Appreciation for norms and conventions Evidence Understanding domain specific words Analyze, evaluate, argue, synthesize Complement the disciplines: Foundation


46 Task 1: After researching ________ (informational texts) on ________ (content), write a/an ________ (essay or substitute) that argues your position on ________ (content). Support your position with evidence from your research. L2 Be sure to acknowledge competing views. L3 Give examples from past or current events or issues to illustrate and clarify your position. http://www.liter acydesigncollab

47 General Science LDC Task 18 for Background Research: After researching and reading ___________(multiple types of sources including: scientific journal publications, book chapters, and other texts) on the ________ (problem) you are investigating, write a review of the literature that summarizes the current state of the problem, describes the major lines of evidence foregrounded in each source, and specifies the implications of that research for your problem of _______(problem). Identify any gaps or unanswered questions that your research will address. Include a reference list. (Informational or Explanatory/Synthesis)

48 Library of Congress Grant

49 +√0+√0 Fully prepared/We are ready to go! We have started but have more work to do. We have yet to tackle this/We have more to learn.

50  Same, grade-appropriate, high-quality text for all.  Appropriate scaffolding to help students understand complex text, based on individual needs, building toward goal of independent reading.  Reading strategies embedded in the activity of reading rather than as a separate body of material.  Students required to think critically about the text.  Instruction often centered on multiple close readings in order to develop deep understanding.  Teachers can identify and evaluate the complexity of text in their content areas.  Students read from complex texts from a wide variety of text structures (narrative, cause and effect, compare and contrast, etc.)  Students always receive different levels of text based on their reading ability.  No instruction is provided for reading strategies to approach complex text.  Students are given a summary of the text prior to reading it.  No support is provided for students who read below grade level.  Majority of text uses a single text structure. SEE NOT SEE

51 Students who reached benchmark scores and did well in college: ◦ Ability to make inferences while reading or answering questions ◦ Ability to answer questions associated with complex text - ACT, 2006 Reading Between the Lines

52  47% of students meeting reading benchmark also met the science benchmark; only 5% of students who did not meet the reading benchmark also met the science benchmark.  Difference between students who did / did not score above reading benchmark was the degree of text complexity. “Aspects of Text Complexity Project: Why Complex Text Matters, David Liben

53  Students below the benchmark (49%) scored no better than chance on multiple-choice items associated with complex text.  Only nearly perfect scores (35/36) did as well on complex text as challenging text; significant # who met the benchmark still scored relatively poorly on complex text. “Aspects of Text Complexity Project: Why Complex Text Matters, David Liben

54  Critical thinking does not distinguish College and Career Readiness from those who are not; facility with reading complex text does! They can THINK, but can they READ ? “Aspects of Text Complexity Project: Why Complex Text Matters, David Liben

55 Must read closely Think deeply about texts Participate in discussions based on text Gain knowledge Publishers Criteria for ELA/Literacy Grades 3-12, p. 3

56  Simplified texts often restricted, limited, and thin in meaning  Complex texts are rich in academic vocabulary; simple texts do not expose students to the type of vocabulary necessary to read complex texts.  Mature language skills are gained by working with demanding materials  No evidence that struggling readers—especially at middle and high school—catch up by gradually increasing the complexity of simpler texts - Adapted from the work of Jean M. Evans Davila, www.

57 “…read closely and gain knowledge from texts.” Publishers Criteria for ELA/Literacy Grades 3-12, p. 6

58 =5w9v6-zUg3Y

59 ALL Students: Anchor Texts at Grade Level Above Grade Level Texts for Advanced Readers Texts Below Grade Level – Scaffolding Only!

60 GradeReading Standard 10 (individual text types omitted) KActively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. 1With prompting and support, read prose and poetry [informational texts] of appropriate complexity for grade 1. 2By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature [informational texts] in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 3By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature [informational texts] at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 4By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature [informational texts] in the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 5By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature [informational texts] at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

61 Overview of Text Complexity Qualitative 1.Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands Quantitative 2.Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity Reader and Task 3.Reader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned

62 Background Prior Knowledge Cultural Vocabulary Standard English Variations Register Genre Organization Narration Text Features Graphics Density and Complexity Figurative Language Purpose Levels of Meaning Structure Knowledge Demands Language Convention and Clarity

63  Sophistication of language and content  Subtlety of themes and issues  Extract knowledge and information from reference materials, technical manuals, literature and other texts  Demanding and context-dependent vocabulary  Subtle relationships among ideas and characters  Nuanced rhetorical style and tone  Elaborate structures or formats  Demand close attention and often demand rereading in order to be fully understood

64  Rich in content  Provide strong models of thinking and writing  Broad resonance and are referred to and quoted often  Provide students with deep engagement in the world and a variety of cultures  Reflect on important issues in the disciplines  Build background knowledge and vocabulary essential to reach College and Career Readiness levels.

65  Variety of literary and informational texts  Read deeply across content areas to gain knowledge base  Attend to author’s choice of words and structures / order and use of detail  Acquire information from different formats in order to access knowledge

66 Text Complexity Grade Band in the Standards Old Lexile Ranges Lexile Ranges Aligned to CCR expectations K-1N/A 2-3450-725450-790 4-5645-845770-980 6-8860-1010955-1155 9-10960-11151080-1305 11-CCR1070-12201215-1355

67 solution-common-text-types-in-the-times/

68 +√0+√0 Fully prepared/We are ready to go! We have started but have more work to do. We have yet to tackle this/We have more to learn.

69  Rich and rigorous conversations are based on text.  Students closely analyze text with evidence to back up their claims and conclusions.  The majority of text-based questions focus conversations and writing and require students to utilize information from the text in their answers.  Questions are of high value – they are worth thinking about and answering.  Questions move beyond what is directly stated and ask students to make nontrivial inferences from evidence in the text.  Background knowledge is used to illuminate text and not replace it.  Students explore how specific words, details, structure and organization of text impact the meaning of the text as a whole.  The bulk of questions regarding the text can be answered without reading the text, either because it is not directly related to the text or because students can answer by referencing teacher comments.  Questions are primarily centered on students’ own experience or background.  Students do not have to make connections within the text in order to answer questions. SEE NOT SEE

70 … be able to discern and cite evidence from text to support assertions. Analytic Reading + Analytic Writing = Analytic THINKING

71  Describe the problem in this text and how it is solved. Use information in the text to support your answer.  Describe the process of ____ using information from the text.  What is the author’s purpose in structuring paragraphs this way? Use details from the passage to support your answer.


73 For students to have deep connections to a common text, which occur in both conversations and writing, in order for them to develop habits for citing textual evidence that supports conclusions drawn from text.

74 High-quality questions help students read complex text…

75 Text-Based Questions call for Text-Based Answers!

76 1. Choose texts worthy of re-reading. 2. Show students how to cite specific text to support answers 3. Provide opportunities for higher-order thinking 4. Develop students’ fascination with the text by making connections to real life

77 Text- SPECIFIC rather than generic!!!

78 Basal Alignment Project If interested, go to the web site: You have to go out and access this site.

79 +√0+√0 Fully prepared/We are ready to go! We have started but have more work to do. We have yet to tackle this/We have more to learn.

80  Students required to use more than one source of information in their writing, in addition to writing in response to a single text.  Multiple short research projects as well as more sustained research.  Students can independently conduct research, without direction from the teacher.  Evidence from text is required in writing assignments and oral discussions.  The majority of writing emphasizes the use of evidence to inform or make an argument.  Student writing analyzes and synthesizes sources of information and present their findings that include careful analysis, well- defined claims and clear information.  Students must have read and analyzed a text in order to respond appropriately to a prompt.  There is a consistent and prevalent focus on argument, opinion and informative writing.  Frequent, short, constructed-response to text-dependent questions.  All analytic writing requires the use of evidence as students paraphrase, infer and integrate ideas from text.  Students write primarily from their own experience or viewpoint.  Students do not use a structured process for conducting research.  No or little instruction is provided in how to support a claim or conclusion.  Writing assignments are not tied to reading.  Writing is not routine and continuous. SEE NOT SEE

81 Why is the student’s ability to write sound arguments on substantive topics and issues important?

82 Text Types and Purposes 1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. 2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. 3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective techniques, well- chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

83 Argument Informational / Explanatory Narrative Support a claim Sound reasoning Relevant evidence Increase subject knowledge Explain a process Enhance understanding Conveys experience Tells a story

84 GradeTo PersuadeTo ExplainTo Convey Experience 430%35% 8 30% 1240% 20%

85 Production and Distribution of Writing 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. 6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.

86 Research to Build / Present Knowledge 7. Conduct short, as well as more sustained research projects based on questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. 8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. 9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

87 Range of Writing 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

88 Evidence from Text Writing Text

89 argument#

90 Appendix C:  Samples of student writing at each grade level that demonstrates mastery of standards

91 +√0+√0 Fully prepared/We are ready to go! We have started but have more work to do. We have yet to tackle this/We have more to learn.

92  Focus on words which are prevalent in complex texts across content areas, as well as content-specific words.  Instruction provided on how to use context clues in the text to determine the meaning of words.  Direct instruction / support for understanding words students may not be able to figure out on their own using solely the text.  Varied contexts, different meanings for the same words, are provided for teaching word meaning.  Instruction causes students to think about words – why/ how specific words are used, how words change the meaning of text, varied meanings based on context, and word choice.  Instruction is driven by addressing the diverse vocabulary levels of students.  Students are expected to apply appropriate academic vocabulary in writing and in discussions.  Vocabulary instruction limited to copying definitions from dictionaries.  Vocabulary instruction disconnected from the text under study.  Vocabulary tests simply ask students to match the word with its definition.  Words selected for vocabulary work are not related to the content or the text being studied. SEE NOT SEE




96 +√0+√0 Fully prepared/We are ready to go! We have started but have more work to do. We have yet to tackle this/We have more to learn.

97  Individual student needs are diagnosed and addressed in the areas of concepts of print, phonological awareness, phonics, vocabulary, syntax and fluency.  High-quality activities are provided for students who have demonstrated facility with the standards, such as extension assignments and more independent reading.  There is sufficient instruction and practice for students to achieve accuracy in their reading.  A variety of fluency building activities (e.g. monitored partner reading, choral reading, repeated readings) are used.  Instruction is designed to meet the individual learning needs of students by focusing on the skills that students have been diagnosed as needing to develop.  No diagnostic assessment information is used to drive instruction for individual or groups of students.  All students receive the same instruction and activities.  Reading activities are primarily focused on “round- robin” reading and worksheets. SEE NOT SEE

98 Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. Teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.

99 +√0+√0 Fully prepared/We are ready to go! We have started but have more work to do. We have yet to tackle this/We have more to learn.

100 Comprehension and Collaboration 1. Range of conversations and collaborations, diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. 2. Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. 3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

101 Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 5. Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations. 6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

102 Demonstrate independence Build strong content knowledge Respond to varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and discipline Comprehend as well as critique Value evidence Use technology and digital media Understand other perspectives and cultures


104 ONE Question that must be addressed … TWO Concerns that you will need to address… THREE Big Ideas to keep in mind as you move forward…

105 What Do Individual Standards Mean?

106 Every district in Iowa has access and an account.

107 Look one grade up and one grade down…

108 Extra materials and supports Strong guidance and additional instruction Small hints and tips Support and encourage!!!


110 1 st Quarter STANDARDS Reading Complex Texts (RL/RI.6.10) Writing About Texts (W.6.1-6, 9-10) RL / RI 6.1-10 W.6.1, 2, 4-9 RL/RI.6.1- 10 Short TextsExtended TextRoutine WritingWriting AnalysesNarrative WritingResearch Project ACTIVITIES / CONTENT 3-5 Total: Literature: 1. 2. (3) Informational Texts: 1. (2) Literature: List types of writing used to develop and convey understanding: Focus on Arguments: 1. 2. 3. 4. (5) (6) Writing to convey experiences: 1. (2) Integrate knowledge from sources when composing: Short TextsExtended TextRoutine WritingWriting AnalysesResearch ProjectNarrative Writing Cite Evidence (RL/RI.6.1) Analyze Content (RL/RI.6.2-9, SL.6.2-3) Planning the Curriculum to Meet the Literacy CCSS

111 K-2 3-12 Publishers’ Criteria


113 Application to Students with Disabilities


115 Tri-State Quality Review Rubric:

116 This will take TIME…

117 Don’t be paralyzed into inaction!

118 Image licensed under CC with attribution

119 Checkpoint Desired State: CCR Current Status

120 Define the Desired State Gather evidence around current practice Findings from the evidence – across sources Conclusions about gaps and congruencies Recommendations for future action GAP ANALYSIS PROCESS Sue Z. Beers, 2012

121 Putting the Pieces Together to Move Forward: College & Career Ready for All!

122 1. Dissatisfaction with how things are 2. See something better that you want Sue Z. Beers, 2012

123 FEAR Lack of Understanding Incorrect Information Sabotage Lack of Vision

124 OLD Way NEW Way

125 …we need to understand  The people we are asking to change  The change we want  The educational process

126 What experiences are our students actually having?

127 PLC Teams Walkthroughs Green Flags / Red Flags

128 Good data tells us if we are on the right track…

129 1 Standards Awareness 3 Standards- Based 5 Standards and Data-Driven


131 Data Driven Instruction 1.Data Driven Culture 2.Assessments 3.Analysis 4.Action

132 “Core Idea: Assessments are not the end of the teaching and learning process, they’re the starting point.” “By being the starting point, interim assessments have the ability to create what Kim Marshall terms the ‘ripple effect’: they influence every component of the teaching process.” Unit Planning Teaching On-the-Spot Assessments Interim Assessments Principal Interventions Data Analysis Follow-Up Summative Assessments

133 Don’t forget FORMATIVE assessment!

134 What data do you have that tells you if your students are making progress? Stop and Share…

135 Zl-Vc

136 District Admin TeachersPrincipals Everyone has a part!

137  Identify the most important KEY ELEMENTS already in place that will help your school / district implement the Common Core.  Identify your GREATEST NEEDS in moving forward.  Define the FIRST STEPS you will undertake in the coming school year.  Identify the THREE MOST IMPORTANT RESOURCES OR TOOLS you will use in leading the implementation to the Common Core!

138  Identify the most important KEY ELEMENTS already in place that will help your school / district implement the Common Core.  Identify your GREATEST NEEDS in moving forward.  Define the FIRST STEPS you will undertake in the coming school year.  Identify the THREE MOST IMPORTANT RESOURCES OR TOOLS you will use in leading the implementation to the Common Core!

139 Complete the Reflection Forms Found On Pages 11 and 12 of your packet. (4A, 4B) You will then move on to Step 5 and 6. Step 5: You will look at the some of the resources available on the N Drive – Step 6: You will then begin to work with the standards for your grade level and/or subject area. Step 6A: Exploratory Teachers, HS Social Studies, HS Science … See directions for your work.

140 Common Core State Standards New Generation State Assessments

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