Presentation on theme: "The Development of Language"— Presentation transcript:
1The Development of Language Chapter 9Language and Communication
2How do we develop the ability to communicate? Module Objectives:What are the elements of speech?How do children develop speech?How do children learn the meaning of words?
3Infants begin making sounds at birth Infants begin making sounds at birth. They cry, coo, and laugh…but in the first year they don’t really do much talkingIt could be argued that infants DO communicate with others, but do not have language
4What is Language?Think about your language…maybe you even speak more than one! What makes a language?This is a broad concept…language is a system that relates sounds or gestures to meaning.Language is expressed through speech, writing and gesture.
5There are four distinct elements to language -Phonology refers to the sounds of a languageSemantics is the study of words and their meaningGrammar refers to the rules used to describe the structure of a languageWhich involves syntax or rules that specify how words are combined to form sentencesPragmatics is the study of how people use language to communicate effectively
6Children must learn to hear the differences in speech sounds and how to produce them; they must learn the meaning of words and rules for combining them into sentences and they must learn effective ways to talk with others
7Phonemes The basic building blocks of language The unique sounds that can be joined to create wordsThe sound of “p” in pin, pet, and patThe sound of “b” in bed, bat, and birdInfants can distinguish many of these sounds, some of them as early as 1 month after birthCan discriminate sounds they have never heard before such as phonemes from a foreign languageEnglish employs just 40 phonemes while other languages have as many as 85 or as few as 15.Newborns are biologically capable of hearing the entire range of phonemes in all languages worldwide. But as babies grow and are more exposed to an particular language, they only notice the linguistic distinctions that are meaningful in that environment. Specialization in one language increases while the potential to hear other language sounds is lost.Infants can learn that sucking can turn on a tape that emits a sound. Within a few minutes, 1-month-olds can learn the relationship between sucking and the sound. They will suck rapidly to hear a tape that consists of nothing more than the sound of “p – puh”. After a few minutes, infants habituate to the sound (decrease sucking). But, if the tape is changed to a different sound – the sound of “b – buh” infants will suck rapidly (dishabituate). So, they can tell the difference between puh and buh.
8The language environment for infants is not solely auditory The language environment for infants is not solely auditory. Much language exposure comes from face-to-face interaction with adults
9Infants use many tools to identity words in speech Infants use many tools to identity words in speech. They don’t understand the meaning of the word yet, but they can recognize a word as a distinct configuration of sounds
10Parents and adults help infants master language sounds by talking in a distinctive style Think on your own…In what distinctive way do adults talk to infants? How can this help infants master the language?
11Language developmentInfants are equipped for language even before birth, partly due to brain readiness, partly because of auditory experiences in the uterusChildren around the world have the same sequence of early language developmentNewborns prefer to hear speech over other sounds- they prefer to listen to “baby talk”- the high pitched, simplified and repetitive was adults speak to infantsThe sound of a human voice, whether familiar or strange always fascinates infantsThe most impressive accomplishment of humans- it differentiates our species from all others
12Adults Use Infant-Directed Speech Adults speak slowly and with exaggerated changes in pitch and loudness and elongated pauses between utterancesAlso known as parentese, motherese, or child-directed speechInfant-direct speech may attract infants’ attention more than adult-directed speech because its slower pace and accentuated changes provide the infant with more salient language cuesHelps infants perceive the sounds that are fundamental to their languageThink about trying to understand someone speaking a foreign language – it is much easier to understand the language when it is spoken slowly and carefullyInfant-directed speech:Characterized by short, simple sentences and it typically refers to concrete objects in a baby’s environmentPitch becomes higher, the range of frequencies increases, and intonation is more variedThere is a repetition of wordsTopics are restricted to items that are assumed to be comprehensible to infantsBy the end of the firs year, ID speech changes. It takes on more adult-like qualities. Sentences become longer and more complex – the individual words are spoken slowly and deliberatelyWhen talking to girls, adults use more words like doggie and blankie whereas with boys, adults use more words like dog and blanket. Girls hear twice as many diminutives. The use of diminutives decreases with age but still remains higher fro girls than boys. Boys tend to hear firmer, clearer language whereas girls tend to hear warmer language.
13When talking to girls, adults use more words like “doggie” and “blankie” whereas with boys, adults use more words like “dog” and “blanket”. Girls hear twice as many diminutives.
14What about children who cannot hear? If infant-directed speech helps infants perceive sounds that are essential to the development of their language…What about children who cannot hear?
15Deaf Children About 1 in every 1,000 American infants is born deaf Over 90% of deaf children have hearing parentsThese children are often delayed in language and complex make-believe playDeaf children with hearing parents:These children are often delayed in language and complex make-believe playThey, during middle childhood, may achieve poorly in school and may be deficient in social skillsHearing parents are less positive, less effective at joint attention and turn-taking, and more directive and intrusiveDeaf children with deaf parents escape these difficulties!!Early child-parent communication seems to be keyDeaf parents know they must wait for the child to turn to them in order to communicateHearing parents tend to gesture when the child’s attention is direct elsewhereDeaf children need models to create a natural language-learning environmentMommyDaddyBaby
16Deaf infants and toddlers seem to master sign language in much the same way and at about the same pace that hearing children master spoken language.Deaf 10-month-olds often “babble” in signs: they produce signs that are meaningless but resemble the tempo and duration of real signs
17Deaf ChildrenCompared to hearing children, babbling of deaf children is delayedHowever, if they are exposed to sign language development will be right on schedule with normal-hearing children’s speech developmentHearing “dog”, infants in the middle of the first year of life may first say “dod” then “gog” before finally saying “dog” correctlyThe same gradual progression will occur with sign language – infants will make mistakes at first before making the correct sign for dogDeaf children display their own form of babbling – Infants who cannot hear and who are exposed to sign language babble with their hands instead of their voicesRegardless of hearing or deaf, babbling progresses from the sounds that are simplest to the more complex.At about 6 months, babbling begins to take on characteristics of the native language. Even untrained listeners can distinguish between babbling infants who have been raised in cultures in which French, Arabic, or Cantonese languages were spoken.Until about 6 months, deaf children will produce the prelinguistic sounds just like hearing children. At about 6 months, deaf children will stop doing things like making raspberries, cooing, etc…
18Speech ProductionAt 2 months, infants begin making sounds that are language-basedStarts with cooingThey begin by producing vowel-like sounds, such as “ooooo” and “ahhhh”At 5 to 6 months, infants begin making speech-like sound that have no meaningCooing turns into babblingPrior to producing speech, infants’ vocal tracts are prepared for speech through crying, sneezing, sighing, burping, and lip-smackingInfants are sensitive to prosody – the characteristic rhythm, tempo, cadence, melody, intonation patterns, etc… with which a language is spokenIn English, normal sentences start with a rise in pitch and then the pitch falls toward the end of the sentence. In English, we also have questions which start out with a flat pitch and then it rises at the end of the sentence.Babies that are exposed to a language with different patterns of intonation (such as Japanese and French) reflect their language’s intonation in their babbling. So, babbling is influenced by the characteristics of the speech they hear.
19“Baby Talk”Babbling is the extended repetition of certain single syllables, such as “ma-ma-ma, da-da-da, ba-ba-ba” that begins at 6-7 months of age.Babbling is experience-expectant learningAll babies babbleAll babies gestureThe sounds they make are similar no matter what language their parents speak
20“Babbling”Over the next few months, babbling incorporates sounds from their native language.Even untrained listeners can distinguish between babbling infants who have been raised in cultures in which French, Arabic, or Cantonese languages were spoken.Many cultures assign important meanings to the sounds babies babble:“ma-ma-ma”, “da-da-da” and “pa-pa-pa” are usually taken to apply to significant people in the infant’s life
21First WordsInfants first recognize words, then they begin to comprehend wordsAt about 4 ½ months of age, infants will listen longer to a tape repeating their own name than to a tape of different but similar nameAt about 7-8 months of age, infants readily learn to recognize new words and remember them for weeksAt 6 months – if an infant hears either “mommy” or “daddy”, they look toward the appropriate person.Infants gradually come to understand the meaning of less frequently heard words – their pace is going to vary child to child. At about 10 months, children understand about 11 to 154 even though they may not be able to say these words
22At 6 months – if an infant hears either “mommy” or “daddy”, they look toward the appropriate person.
23By their 1st birthday, infants usually say their first words, usually an extension of babbling. By the age of 2 most children have a vocabulary of a few hundred words, and by age 6 the vocabulary includes over 10,000 words!
24The Importance of Symbols Children begin using gestures, which are symbols shortly before their first birthday.Gestures and words convey a message equally well…sometimes gestures pave the way for languageIn one study, 50% of all objects were referred to first by gesture and, about 3 months later, by word (Iverson & Meadow, 2005)
25After children know that objects have names, a gesture is a convenient substitute for pronouns like “it” or “that” and often cause the adult to say the object’s name
26Names for everything!Once an infant’s vocabulary reaches about 50 words it suddenly begins to build rapidly, at a rate of words per month, mostly nouns.This language spurt occurs around 18 months and is sometimes called the Naming explosion.
27Productive Vocabulary Early productive vocabularies of children in the US include names for people, objects, and events from the child’s everyday life.Frequent events or routines are also labeled, such as “up” or “bye-bye”Nouns predominate the early productive vocabularies of children
28The rate of children’s vocabulary development is influenced by the amount of talk they are exposed to The more speech that is addressed to a toddler, the more rapidly the toddler will learn new words
29Word ComprehensionFast Mapping is the process of rapidly learning a new word simply from the contrastive use of a familiar word and an unfamiliar wordThe children’s ability to connect new words to familiar words so rapidly that they cannot be considering all possible meaning for the new word
30Example of Fast Mapping In a preschool classroom, an experimenter drew a child’s attention to two blocks – asking the child to “get the celadon block not the blue one”From this simple contrast, the child inferred that the name of the color of the requested object was “celadon”After a single exposure to this novel word, about half the children showed some knowledge of it a week later by correctly picking the celadon color child from a bunch of paint chips
31Give Fast-Mapping a try… Answer the following questions on you own.
32Snurks are covered with garslim. Garslim is like __________? This is a snurk. It walks on its flaxes. How many flaxes does a snurk have?Snurks have twice as many flaxes as ampolinks. Where are the amopolinlks?Snurks are covered with garslim. Garslim is like __________?Like dogs, snurks can wag their pangeers. Where is the pangeer?Do you think snurks can bispooche? Why or why not?This is an exercise in fast mapping. They have to complete the questions quickly without talking to anyone.The first four questions should be easy to answer. The last question is designed to be impossible to answer without further information.These questions put you back in toddlers shoes listening to adults speak. Like toddlers, you all must rely on context to comprehend the strange vocabulary to describe the snurk. In absence of adequate context, comprehension is impossible (as in question 5).
33These questions put you back in toddlers shoes listening to adults speak. Like toddlers, you all must rely on context to comprehend the strange vocabulary to describe the snurk.In absence of adequate context, comprehension is impossible (as you experienced in question #5).
34Early Errors in Language One common inaccuracy is underextension –using a word too narrowly.Using the word “cat” to refer only to the family catUsing the word “ball” to refer only to a favorite toy ballWhen toddlers start learning language they make certain mistakes
35Sarah refers to the blanket she sleeps with as “blankie” Sarah refers to the blanket she sleeps with as “blankie”. When Aunt Ethel gives her a new blanket Sarah refuses to call the new one a “blankie” – she restricts that word only to her original blanket.
36OverextensionThe use a given word in a broader context than is appropriateCommon between 1 and 3 years of ageMore common than UnderextensionToddlers will apply the new word to a group of similar experiences“Open” – for opening a door, peeling fruit, or undoing shoelacesOverextension is more common than underextensionReflects their sensitivity to categorizationToddlers will apply the new word to a group of similar experiencesOpen – for opening a door, peeling fruit, or undoing shoelacesChildren overextend because they have not acquired another suitable word or because they have difficulty remembering a more suitable wordChildren overextend more words in production than in comprehension – they may refer to buses, trains, trucks as cars but will point to the correct object when given the correct name (comprehension precedes production)
37Language ErrorsChildren overextend because they have not acquired another suitable word or because they have difficulty remembering a more suitable wordExamples:Ball referring to ball, balloon, marble, egg, or appleMoon referring to moon, half-moon shaped lemon slice, or half a CheerioCar referring to a car, bus, truck, or tractorDaddy referring to dad or any manDoggie referring to dog or any four-legged animal
38Making SentencesMost children begin to combine words into simple sentences by 18 to 24 months of ageChildren’s first sentences are two-word combinations referred to as Telegraphic speechWords directly relevant to meaningWords not critical to the meaning are left out – similar to the way telegrams were written such as:Function words: a, the inAuxiliary words: is, was, will beWord endings: plurals, possessives, verb tensesTelegraphic speech: Two-word utterancesUsually deals with everyday events, things, people or activitiesWord order usually conforms to what the child hearsWords not critical to the meaning are left out – similar to the way telegrams were written
39“More cookie”, “Mommy go”, “Daddy juice”, “Sue dogs” These sentences are brief and to the point, containing only vital information“More cookie”, “Mommy go”, “Daddy juice”, “Sue dogs”
40By about 2 ½ years of age, children have the ability to produce more complex sentences (four or more words per sentence).The longer sentences are filled with grammatical morphemes (words or endings of words that make sentences more grammatical).A 1 ½-year-old might say “kick ball” but a 3-year-old would be more likely to say “I am kicking the ball”
41OverregularizationSpeech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular.Applying rules to words that are exceptions to the ruleThis leads young children to talk about foots, tooths, sleeps, sheeps and mouses.Although technically wrong, Overregularization is a sign of verbal sophistication because it shows children are applying the rules to grammar.
42Between 3 and 6 Years of Age Children learn to use negation“That isn’t a butterfly”Children learn to use embedded sentences“Jennifer thinks that Bill took the book”Children begin to comprehend passive voice as opposed to active voice“The ball was kicked by the girl” as opposed to “The girl kicked the ball”By the time most children enter kindergarten, they use most of the grammatical forms of their native language with great skill
43The development of language in children is amazing, but how do they do it? There are several theories that attempt to explain how we develop language
44Infants Are Conditioned to Speak Behaviorist’s believe that all learning is acquired step-by-step, through associations and reinforcementsAccording to this view, the reinforcement of the quantity and quality of talking to child affect rate of language development.When a 6 month-old says, “ma-ma-ma” they are showered with attention and praise. This is exactly what the baby wants and will make the sounds again to get the same rewards.
45Say Ma-Ma…..Children who are spoken to more and praised by caregivers tend to develop language faster.Parents are great intuitive teachers- we name items for infants and praise infants when they repeat our words.For instance, parents typically name each object when they talk to their child, “Here is your bottle”, “There is your foot”, “You want your juice?”Parents name the object and speak clearly and slowly, often using baby talk to capture the infant’s interest (Gogate et al., 2000).
47What Do the Linguist’s say? Noam Chomsky believes language is a product of biology and is too complex to be mastered so early and easily by conditioning.Chomsky noted that children worldwide learn the rudiments of grammar at approximately the same age because the human brain is equipped with a language device.including intonations and structure of language
48Our Brain is Specialized for Language LAD (language acquisition device) is an area of our brain which facilitates the development of language.Chomsky believes that the LAD facilitates language and enables children to derive the rules of grammar from everyday speech, regardless of the native language.Language is experience-expectant, words are expected by the developing brain-Chomsky believes that children are pre-wired for language
49Think about a successful conversation What factors influence effective communication?
50Using Language to Communicate For effective oral communication:People should take turns, alternating as speaker and listenerA speaker’s remarks should relate to the topic and be understandable to the listenerA listener should play attention and let the speaker know if his or her remarks do not make sense
51Taking TurnsSoon after 1-year-olds begin to speak, parents encourage their children to participate in conversational turn-takingBy age 2, spontaneous turn-taking is common in conversations between children and adultsBy age 3, children have progressed to the point that if a listener fails to reply promptly, the child repeats his or her remark in order to elicit a response
52Taking Turns Parent: Can you see the bird? Infant (cooing): oooooh Parent: It is a pretty bird.Infant: ooooohParent: You’re right, it’s a cardinal.Parents having a conversation with a 6-week-old infant still involve taking turns. To help children along, parents often carry both sides of the conversation to demonstrate how the roles of speaker and listener alternate.Parents having a conversation with a 6-week-old infant still involves taking turns. To help children along, parents often carry both sides of the conversation to demonstrate how the roles of speaker and listener alternate.Parents try to get the infant to fit into the conversation. Using scaffolding
53Initiating a Conversation The first attempt to deliberately communicate typically emerges at 10 monthsUsually by touching or pointing to an object while simultaneously looking at another personAt 1 year, infants begin to use speech to communicate and often initiate conversations with adultsFirst conversation are about themselves but this rapidly expands to include objects in their worldBy preschool, children begin to adult their messages to match the listener and the contextSchool-age children speak differently to adults and peersPreschool children give more elaborate messages to listeners who are unfamiliar with a topic than to listeners who are familiar with it
54Click on the picture for an interesting article on language development
55How Do Our Emotions Develop? What’s Next?How Do Our Emotions Develop?