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Bovine Leukosis: Are We Up To The Challenge Greg Keefe DVM MSc MBA Omid Nekouei DVM 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Bovine Leukosis: Are We Up To The Challenge Greg Keefe DVM MSc MBA Omid Nekouei DVM 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bovine Leukosis: Are We Up To The Challenge Greg Keefe DVM MSc MBA Omid Nekouei DVM 1

2 Introduction Terminology –Enzootic Bovine Leukosis (EBL) = “the disease” –Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) = “the virus” Spread –Blood or other sources of “blood cells” –Not a free virus – needs to be in cells Any blood contact – Needles, dehorners, bloody trimming knives, rectal sleeves Also possible - colostrum, milk, reproductive procedures, in-utero (before birth) exposure 2

3 Introduction Progression of Leukosis 1.Infection and development of permanent carrier state 2.Increase in circulating white blood cells – about 30% of animals develop this stage 3.Tumors – called “lymphsarcoma” in approximately 5% of animals Superficial lymph nodes Heart Stomach/intestine Spinal canal Reproductive tract

4 Introduction Diagnosis –Mainly blood/milk antibody tests (ELISA) –Also postmortem and with a test for the virus RNA (genetic material) Control/eradication –The cornerstone in all programs is preventing blood cell movement Needles, gloves, instruments, colostrum, insects??? –Test & slaughter/segregation/biosecurity measures –Herd conditions/goals dictate program 4

5 Importance BLV can be is economically significant –premature culling or death as a result of lymphosarcoma –The condemnation of carcasses at slaughter –Lower production & reproductive performance –Indirect losses: from export restrictions Whole countries have eradicated –UK, Denmark, Netherlands, France….. The prevalence in North America is increasing 5


7 Historic prevalence of BLV in Canada by province 7 1998-2003 5.5% 63% 49% 16.6%

8 Current BLV project Sponsored by 3 regional boards and AAFC (ADAPT/CAAP program) Objectives: –Test ability of bulk tank milk ELISA to predict prevalence –Establish prevalence at herd level and estimate cow level Pave the way for herd categorization/risk assessment/ management plan similar to AJDI

9 9

10 Comparison of individual milk samples (gold standard) to Bulk tank milk 10

11 General design: sampling rounds for all Maritimes dairy herds BTM 1BTM 2BTM 3 BTM 4 in 90 selected herds plus all individual milk samples 11 Stratified random sampling of 90 based on BT ELISA values (5) 641 634 628

12 Stratified random sampling 90 herds NB (30) NS (30) PEI (30) 12 Based on values of BT samples from the 5 groups Only Valacta herds 70

13 Results from 85 herds Manufacturers recommended cutoff of <5 = Neg 6 herds with BT value<5 (BTM neg) in fact had a single positive low ELISA titre animal All negative herds were correctly classified 13 Relative * Sn: 91.8% * Sp: 100% At herd-level

14 Prediction of within-herd prevalence by BT-values (modeling) 14 Correlation ~ 85% Within –herd prevalence BT ELISA values

15 Results Bulk tank milk samples Prevalence at herd-level 15

16 Overall herd prevalence 623 herds tested 3X – 67 are <5 = negative (11%) Can estimate within herd prevalence for the positive herds 16 A B C D E BTM ELISA score and cow prevalence estimate A - < 5 = negative B - 5 to 40 = 10% C- 40-55 = 20% D - 55-70 = 40% E - >70 = 70%

17 BLV take-home thoughts BTM testing worked very well to determine status/predict level – unfortunately........ Prevalence of BLV infection at herd and cow levels in the Maritimes has been increased over time  very high now We need a practical control plan for BLV Hence the title - Are We Up To The Challenge 17

18 Atlantic Healthy Herds Johne’s Control AJDI Calf Mgmt and colostrum assessment Internal parasite treatment model BLV Control and Risk Management BVD eradication and biosecurity Web port - Data collection, delivery benchmarking Lameness Mgmt. and Benchmarking

19 Atlantic Healthy Herds Cost of these diseases is $10 M/year in Atlantic Canada Support from the 4 regional boards Seeking matching program funding Phased rollout in beginning in 2014

20 Thank you Acknowledgements –Dairy Boards –ADAPT councils –NB Dept of Ag –Valacta –MQM technical team –Participating farmers

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