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Organizational Change Ashley Montgomery University of Maine at Farmington.

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1 Organizational Change Ashley Montgomery University of Maine at Farmington

2 List the 12 things you value the most about your job - anything from the work itself, to your colleagues, to your office space. Be as broad in your thinking as possible, but also choose the most critically important factors.

3 Now, prioritize the "job satisfiers" into three groups * Important- things that you value, but, if gone, wouldn't cause too much difficulty * Very Important- one step up the scale * Critically Important- things without which the job would be terrible * Write the grouped list in concentric circles Important Critically Important Very Important

4 1.Forces that impede change 2.Strategies of leadership to facilitate change 3.Characteristics that make organizations more or less receptive to change 4.Consider your institution 5.Common mistakes


6 Why do we resist change? Or do we? We resist change… and yet we get married. Resistance is bad… and yet it’s what protects us from bad ideas. We consider the question “Why should I change?” almost as a form of insubordination… and yet it’s what enables us to decide when change is necessary.

7 The situation Two conflicting situations- a)We must implement all change that is necessary. b)We must resist all change that isn't. The challenge- a)How can we get people to embrace the change that is necessary? b)How can we create an environment that allows rational resistance?

8 Resistance to change  A certain amount is crucial to ANY organization  Far too much change is proposed for us to embrace all of it

9 General reasons for resistance 1.We are creatures of habit 2.Fear of the unknown 3.Human emotion. We are unpredictable, and tend to do only what we want to. 4.Ignorance. We are either unaware a problem exists or that a better solution can be found. 5.Combinations of the above.

10 Behaviors fall into two categories  Active –Finding fault –Ridiculing –Appealing to fear –Manipulating  Passive –Agreeing verbally but not following through –Feigning ignorance –Withholding information

11 Reasons specific to the workplace: 1.Fear of failure 2.Creatures of habit 3.No obvious need 4.Loss of control 5.Concern about support system 6.Closed mind 7.Unwillingness to learn 8.Fear that the new way may not be better 9.Fear of the unknown 10.Fear of personal impact

12 Resistance defined  "behavior which is intended to protect an individual from the effects of real or imagined change" (Dent & Goldberg, 1999, p. 34).  "any conduct that serves to maintain the status quo in the face of pressure to alter the status quo" (Bradley, 2000, p. 76).  "behavior that seeks to challenge, disrupt, or invert prevailing assumptions, discourses, and power relations" (Folger & Skarlicki (1999) p. 36).

13 Foster an environment that permits rational resistance To intelligently select the most appropriate changes available The goal

14 This is not about disobedience  Make it an inclusive planning process  Ask for suggestions and incorporating their ideas  Clearly define the need for the change by communicating in multiple forms  Disrupt only what needs to be changed  Phase in changes wherever possible

15 It can be an inclusive process  Be open and honest  Do not leave openings for people to return to the status quo  Be specific about positive aspects of the change (when you can)  Skill building training programs (e.g communication strategies, teambuilding, etc.)

16 Leadership


18 Readiness for organizational change  Build motivation –where are we and where do we want to be?  Strengthen capacity –Personnel- a representative guiding team Essential representation –Resources –Structural- don’t create silos! –Strategic- align with institutional mission and goals

19 Identify where the change/improvement needs to occur  What strategic direction do we need to move in?  Conduct critical functions analysis –Try to not add functions without removing other functions (without added resources) –Stakeholders –Environmental Scan –Payoff

20 Create an effective environment for organizational change  Communicate for buy-in, but don’t over saturate –Urgency –Vision –Strategy--> to achieve vision –Plan--> step by step implementation guide –Speak to anxieties--> prepare answers to anticipated questions –Feedback loop

21 Create an effective environment for organizational change include:  Aggressively rid the organization of work that is no longer relevant –Does this add value?  Recognize that “day to day” takes energy and time

22 Factors that help create an effective environment for organizational change include:  Look for ways to keep urgency up –Create short term wins –Empower action  Don’t let up after initial wins!  Alignment is important: –Does this fit with our vision? –Does it help us (and the institution) move in the right direction?

23 Motivation for organizational change depends on perceived discrepancies between where we are AND where we want to be Not WIIFM (What's In It For Me) but climate and readiness

24 Consider Your Institution

25 Evaluating Readiness

26 Organizational prototyping  Reactive  Proactive  High Performing

27  What characteristics do you see as strengths and which ones most need improvement?  How congruent are various components of the organization? Does one stand out?  How large is the discrepancy between where your organization is at now and where you want it to be in a year? Three years?  Knowing your organizational prototype, how can you effectively manage change (or is it possible with the current parameters)?  With this in mind, how can your organizations sustain development/change?

28 When ready, proceed with the plan!  As you continue, remember to: Focus on continuous evaluation and reflection. Follow the implementation process as a team Measure effectiveness continuously Market the outcomes to your team and the organization Celebrate success

29 Mistakes

30 1.We add on but we don’t often subtract 2.Not understanding the importance of people 3.Not appreciating that people react differently to change 4.Treating transformational change as an event, rather than a mental, physical and emotional process

31 5.Being less than candid 6.Not appropriately "setting the stage" for change 7.Trying to manage transformation with the same strategies used for incremental change 8.Underestimating human potential 9.Too narrowly defined/ineffective communication channels

32 During Woodrow Wilson’s first term as President, this former university president is reported to have jokingly commented that, after Princeton, Washington politics was easy. Boyer (1987) p. 235

33 Resources  Boyer, E. (1988). College: The Undergraduate Experience in America.  Block,P. (1991). The Empowered Manager: Positive Political Skills at Work.  Collins, J. (2001). Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap... and Others Don't.  de Jager, P. (2001, May/Jun). “Resistance to Change: A New View of An Old Problem.” The Futurist.  Dent, E. & Goldberg, S. (1999). “Challenging ‘resistance to change’.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science.  Folger, R. & Skarlicki, D. (1999). “Unfairness and Resistance to Change: Hardship as Mistreatment.” Journal of Organizational Change Management.  Gorman, C. (2000). “The Biggest Mistakes in Managing Change.” Innovative Leader.  Peterson, M., Dill, D. & Mets, L. (2007). Planning and Management for a Changing Environment: A Handbook on Redesigning Postsecondary Education.  Zaltman, G. & Duncan, R. (1977). Strategies for planned change.

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