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© 2013 by Nelson Education1 Foundations of Recruitment and Selection II: Legal Issues
© 2013 by Nelson Education2 Chapter Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter you should: ◦ Understand the major legal issues affecting recruitment and selection ◦ Know how relevant human rights and employment equity legislation and policies affect recruitment and selection in your organization ◦ Understand and be able to describe how legal concerns affect the practice of recruitment and selection
© 2013 by Nelson Education3 3 Chapter Learning Outcomes ◦ Know, and be capable of explaining the key legal concepts that have had an impact on recruitment and selection in this country ◦ Be able to apply the basic concepts and principles discussed in the chapter to the development of recruitment and selection system that meet legal requirements
© 2013 by Nelson Education4 Four Legal Sources Affecting Canadian Employment Practices 1. Constitutional law 2. Human rights legislation 3. Employment equity 4. Labour law, employment standards, and related legislation
© 2013 by Nelson Education5 Constitutional Law Constitutional law: the Supreme Law of Canada ◦ It has a pervasive impact on employment practices, as it does on all spheres of Canadian Society ◦ Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
© 2013 by Nelson Education6 Human rights legislation: prohibits discrimination in both employment and the provision of goods and services (e.g., rental housing, service-in restaurants) ◦ Legislation generally establishes human rights commissions or tribunals to deal with complaints, including those involving employment discrimination Human Rights Law
© 2013 by Nelson Education7 Section 8 of the Canadian Human Rights Act refers to a “a prohibited ground of discrimination.” The following are grounds on which discrimination is prohibited: ◦ Race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex (including pregnancy and childbirth), marital status, family status, mental or physical disability, pardoned conviction, sexual orientation Human Rights Law
© 2013 by Nelson Education8
9 Prohibited Grounds of Employment Discrimination (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education10 Prohibited Grounds of Employment Discrimination (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education11 Prohibited Grounds of Employment Discrimination (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education12 Prohibited Grounds of Employment Discrimination (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education13 Prohibited Grounds of Employment Discrimination (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education14 Employment equity: the elimination of discriminatory practices that prevent the entry or retention of members from designated groups in the workplace, and the elimination of unequal treatment in the workplace related to membership in a designated group (e.g., women, visible minorities, Aboriginal peoples, and people with disabilities) Employment Equity Legislation
© 2013 by Nelson Education15 1. Obtain support of senior management for the EE effort 2. Conduct a survey to determine the present representation of designated groups in the organization’s internal work force 3. Set future representation targets for designated groups based on availability of qualified workers in the labour market Developing and Implementing and Employment Equity (EE) Plan
© 2013 by Nelson Education16 4. Remove systemic employment barriers to increase representation for designated groups in the internal work force 5. Monitor the changing composition of the internal work force over time 6. Make necessary changes to the EE intervention to bring designated group representation up to future targets Developing and Implementing and Employment Equity (EE) Plan (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education17 A work force representative of Canadian culture and diversity An increase in global competitiveness and productivity High employee morale and decreased absenteeism Benefits of Implementing Employment Equity
© 2013 by Nelson Education18 Amicable relationships with customers and clients Enhanced corporate reputation Increased profitability and a better bottom line Benefits of Implementing Employment Equity (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education19 1. You are the President of your company. How would you encourage your managers to promote Employment Equity in their department? Class Activity
© 2013 by Nelson Education20 Federal/Provincial labour laws: stipulate the rights of the employees to organize trade unions and to bargain collective agreements with employers Collective agreements: set out the conditions for unionized employees (e.g., Promotion, lateral transfer and demotion) Labour Law
© 2013 by Nelson Education21 Employment standards: federal/provincial laws to regulate minimum age of employment, hours of work, minimum wages, statutory holidays, vacations, work leaves, and termination of employment Employment Standards
© 2013 by Nelson Education22 Key Legal Concepts in Recruitment and Selection Direct discrimination: occurs where an employer adopts a practice or rule that, on its face, discriminates on a prohibited ground
© 2013 by Nelson Education23 Key Legal Concepts in Recruitment and Selection (continued) Indirect discrimination: occurs when an employer, in good faith, adopts a policy or practice for sound economic, or business reasons, but when it is applied to all employees it has an unintended, negative impact on members of a protected group
© 2013 by Nelson Education24 Key Legal Concepts in Recruitment and Selection (continued) Protected groups: those who have attributes that are defined as “prohibited grounds” for discrimination under the human rights act that applies to the employing organization Adverse impact: occurs when the selection rate for a protected group is lower than that for the relevant comparison group
© 2013 by Nelson Education25 Bona fide occupational requirement (BFOR): requirement(s) that a person must possess to perform the essential components of a job in a safe, efficient, and reliable manner Key Legal Concepts in Recruitment and Selection (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education26 Accommodation: the duty of an employer to put in place modifications to discriminatory employment practices or procedures to meet the needs of members of a protected group being affected by the employment practice or procedure Key Legal Concepts in Recruitment and Selection (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education27 Key Legal Concepts in Recruitment and Selection (continued) Sufficient risk: an employer may argue that an occupational requirement that discriminates against a protected group is reasonably necessary to ensure that work will be performed successfully and in a manner that will not pose harm or danger to employees or the public
© 2013 by Nelson Education28 Undue hardship: the limit beyond which employers and service providers are not expected to accommodate a member of a protected group Key Legal Concepts in Recruitment and Selection (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education29 Key Legal Concepts in Recruitment and Selection (continued) Adverse effect discrimination: a situation where an employer, in good faith, adopts a policy or practice that has an unintended, negative impact on members of a protected group
© 2013 by Nelson Education30 1. What does it mean to accommodate someone to the point of undue hardship? 2. When can an apparently discriminatory selection practice by justified on the grounds of “sufficient risk”? Class Activity
© 2013 by Nelson Education31 Outreach recruiting: the employing organization makes a determined and persistent effort to make potential job applicants, including designated group members, aware of available positions within the employing organizations Outreach Recruiting
© 2013 by Nelson Education32 Effective Practices for Nondiscriminatory Recruiting ◦ Post complete, objective, and specific information on all available jobs in a conspicuous spot ◦ Advertise job openings in media that are read, viewed, or listened to by protected or designated group members ◦ Train employment clerical staff and recruitment officers in outreach recruiting Recruitment and Selection Notebook 3.5
© 2013 by Nelson Education33 Recruitment and Selection Notebook 3.5 (continued) ◦ Base selection criteria on bona fide occupational requirements ◦ Use opportunities to visually present protected or designated group members in positive employment roles ◦ Establish networks with community groups from which protected or designated group members are drawn ◦ Set and advertise objectively determined selection criteria for the job
© 2013 by Nelson Education34 Recruitment and Selection Notebook 3.5 (continued) Ineffective Practices for Nondiscriminatory Recruiting ◦ Permit receptionists and recruiters in employment offices to “pre-screen” applicants on the basis of informal criteria (e.g., appearance, dress) ◦ Rely on word-of-mouth advertising ◦ Post job advertisements only in-house
© 2013 by Nelson Education35 ◦ Rely solely on seniority when promoting employees without regard for meeting the qualifications need for the position ◦ Allow each recruiter to use and communicate idiosyncratic criteria for selecting among job applicants ◦ Categorize and stream job applicants based on stereotyped assumptions about protected or designated group membership (e.g., that women are not physically strong enough for certain work) Recruitment and Selection Notebook 3.5 (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education36 Summary The work force is becoming increasingly diverse with regard to race, gender, and disabilities Diversity, human rights, and employment equity are important
© 2013 by Nelson Education37 There are four main legal sources: constitutional law, human rights legislation, employment equity, and labour law and employment standards Labour codes and related legislation will affect recruitment and selection practices in Canadian organizations Summary (continued)
© 2013 by Nelson Education38 1. What are the prohibited grounds of employment discrimination in Ontario? 2. Why is basing hiring practices on a “gut feeling” risky business? Discussion Questions
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