Presentation on theme: "Diunduh dari: smno.psdl.ppsub.2013 MK. EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA ALAM DAN LINGKUNGAN INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS Greentax Sep. 7, 2004 Gary Flomenhoft-Gund."— Presentation transcript:
Diunduh dari: smno.psdl.ppsub.2013 MK. EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA ALAM DAN LINGKUNGAN INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS Greentax Sep. 7, 2004 Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute
DIAGRAM LINGKAR MODEL EKONOMI ECONOMY “EXTERNALITIES” SOCIETY ENVIRONMENT ? ?
LINGKUNGAN sbg ‘SUBSET’ dari EKONOMI EKONOMI EKOSISTEM
= EKONOMI NEO-KLASIK 1890- No Ingredients, only labor and capital P = f(L,K)= AL a. BK b (Cobb-Douglas multiplication) Labor (Chef ) Kapital (Mixing bowl) x ROTI? Kapital (oven) X
= INFINITE SUBSTITUT-ABILITY: 2P = f(L,K)= 2AL a. 2BK b More Chefs or Bigger Mixing bowl x More Bread? EKONOMI NEO-KLASIK 1890-
Quotable Quotes “There is no reason we can’t have a perfectly healthy economy with virtually no resources whatsoever” Robert Solow “We can do without agriculture because it’s only 2% of the economy.”Norgaard? “neo-classical economics is a form of brain damage” - - Hazel Henderson
ECONOMY (waste) (some) Sumberdaya Sub-surface Resources MODEL SKY-TRUST Ke Hulu…….!
Sky-Trust model Appendix : Key Features of U.S. Sky Trust Here are the key features of the proposed U.S. Sky Trust. o Carbon emissions cap set initially at 1.346 billion tons, the 1990 level o Tradable carbon emission permits sold annually to energy companies at the top of the carbon chain. o All revenue from permit sales goes into a nationwide trust. o Trust pays equal annual dividends to all U.S. citizens (like the Alaska Permanent Fund). o Dividends can be placed tax-free in Individual Retirement Accounts or Individual Development Accounts for children. o Initial price ceiling on carbon emission permits of $25 a ton; ceiling rises 7 percent a year for four years. o Transition Fund to help those most adversely affected by higher carbon prices. Fund starts at 25 percent of permit revenue, declines 2.5 percent per year.
“Maximization of Shareholder Value” “Golden Rule of Publicly held companies: Rational behavior: Externalize costs Influence politics to Seek subsidies and favors
“Altruism is evil and selfishness is a virtue.” -Ayn Rand QUOTABLE QUOTES “Few trends could so thoroughly undermine the very foundations of our free society as the acceptance by corporate officials of a social responsibility other than to make as much money for their stockholders as possible.”-Milton Friedman 1962
BIAYA REGULASI Annual Cost: $37-43 billion EPA conservative approach, Consistently overestimates costs, not considering least cost approach and technical innovation Annual Benefits: $121-193 EPA consistently underestimates benefits USING ACTUAL NOT THEORETICAL CASES BENEFITS OUTWEIGH COSTS 5:1
CONSILIENCE “~Resources are infinite and the economy can grow forever” (Julian Simon) “Anyone who thinks you can have infinite growth on a finite planet is either a madman or an economist” (Kenneth Boulding)
Growth Development Growth = increase in throughput-quantitative Development = qualitative improvement EKONOMI – EKOLOGIS: Human Development
Growth Development Demographic transition Theory EKONOMI – EKOLOGIS: POPULASI
Sebab-sebab Bencana Lingkungan Urbanization Agriculture Water diversions (e.g., reservoirs) Recreation, tourism development Pollution Domestic livestock, ranching 247 205 160 148 143 136 Czech et al. 2000. Bioscience 50(7):593-601.
Mineral, gas, oil extraction Non-native species Harvest Modified fire regimes Road construction/maintenance Industrial development 134 115 101 83 81 Czech et al. 2000. Bioscience 50(7):593-601. Sebab-sebab Bencana Lingkungan
K SKENARIO DAYA DUKUNG Individuals Time r-selection K-selection
Time GNP K Natural capital allocated to human economy Natural capital allocated to wildlife Czech, B. 2000. Economic growth as the limiting factor for wildlife conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(1):4-14.
KAPITAL SUMBERDAYA ALAM “We treat the earth like a business in liquidation.” Herman Daly Opportunity cost. Loss is not counted.
K DAYA DUKUNG EKONOMI (“Plimsoll line”) GNP Time r-selection K-selection
GGP K Human economy Economy of nature We Might Ask
KTKT GNP Natural capital allocated to human economy Natural capital allocated to non-human economy X natural capital allocable Time KUKU ALOKASI SUMBERDAYA ALAM
rival –My use leaves less for you to use Excludable (property rights) –One person can keep another from using the good –Consumer must pay, market will supply Must have a price to work in the free market! Rivalness and Excludability
Non-rival –My use does not leave less for you to use –Market sells for a price, discouraging use, but social cost of use = 0, therefore market should not supply Non-excludable –One person can’t keep another from using the good –Consumer will not pay, market will not supply Must have a price to work in the free market!
Rival} Non-rival} Excludable Non-Excludable Market Good: Food, clothes, cars, land, timber, fish once captured, farmed fish, regulated pollution Potential market good (Tragedy of the “non- commons”)but inefficient: patented information, Pond, roads (congestible), streetlights Pure Public Good: climate stability, ozone layer, clean air/water/land, Biodiversity, information, habitat, life support functions, etc. Open Access Regime: (misnamed: Tragedy of the commons) Oceanic fisheries, timber etc. from unprotected forests, air pollution, waste absorption capacity Non-rival, congestible Private beaches, private gardens, toll roads, zoos, movies Public beaches, gardens, roads, etc.