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PENGANTAR EKOLOGI-EKONOMI Diabstraksikan : smno.psdl.ppsub.2012/13 MK. EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA ALAM & LINGKUNGAN.

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1 PENGANTAR EKOLOGI-EKONOMI Diabstraksikan : smno.psdl.ppsub.2012/13 MK. EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA ALAM & LINGKUNGAN

2 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 TIGA PILAR KEBERLANJUTAN - KELESTARIAN Three circles enclosed within one another showing how both economy and society are subsets of our planetary ecological system. This view is useful for correcting the misconception, sometimes drawn from the previous "three pillars" diagram, that portions of social and economic systems can exist independently from the environment.

3 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 EKOLOGI-EKONOMI Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that aims to address the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems over time and space. It is distinguished from environmental economics, which is the mainstream economic analysis of the environment, by its treatment of the economy as a subsystem of the ecosystem and its emphasis upon preserving natural capital. One survey of German economists found that ecological and environmental economics are different schools of economic thought, with ecological economists emphasizing "strong" sustainability and rejecting the proposition that natural capital can be substituted for human-made capital.

4 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Ecological economics includes the study of the metabolism of society, that is, the study of the flows of energy and materials that enter and exit the economic system. This subfield is also called biophysical economics, sometimes referred to also as bioeconomics. It is based on a conceptual model of the economy connected to, and sustained by, a flow of energy, materials, and ecosystem services. Analysts from a variety of disciplines have conducted research on the economy-environment relationship, with concern for energy and material flows and sustainability, environmental quality, and economic development. EKOLOGI-EKONOMI

5 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 ALAM & EKOLOGI Once consumed, natural inputs pass out of the economy as pollution and waste. The potential of an environment to provide services and materials is referred to as an "environment's source function", and this function is depleted as resources are consumed or pollution contaminates the resources. The "sink function" describes an environment's ability to absorb and render harmless waste and pollution: when waste output exceeds the limit of the sink function, long- term damage occurs. Some persistent pollutants, such as some organic pollutants and nuclear waste are absorbed very slowly or not at all; ecological economists emphasize minimizing "cumulative pollutants". Pollutants affect human health and the health of the climate.

6 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 VALUASI EKONOMI The economic value of natural capital and ecosystem services is accepted by mainstream environmental economics, but is emphasized as especially important in ecological economics. Ecological economists may begin by estimating how to maintain a stable environment before assessing the cost in dollar terms. Ecological economist Robert Costanza led an attempted valuation of the global ecosystem in Initially published in Nature, the article concluded on $33 trillion with a range from $16 trillion to $54 trillion (in 1997, total global GDP was $27 trillion). Half of the value went to nutrient cycling.

7 DIAGRAM LINGKAR MODEL EKONOMI ECONOMY “EXTERNALITIES” SOCIETY ENVIRONMENT ? ? Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

8 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 JASA-JASA LINGKUNGAN A study was carried out by Costanza and colleagues to determine the 'price' of the services provided by the environment. This was determined by averaging values obtained from a range of studies conducted in very specific context and then transferring these without regard to that context. Dollar figures were averaged to a per hectare number for different types of ecosystem e.g. wetlands, oceans. A total was then produced which came out at 33 trillion US dollars (1997 values), more than twice the total GDP of the world at the time of the study.

9 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 JASA-JASA EKOSISTEM Humankind benefits from a multitude of resources and processes that are supplied by natural ecosystems. Collectively, these benefits are known as ecosystem services and include products like clean drinking water and processes such as the decomposition of wastes. While scientists and environmentalists have discussed ecosystem services for decades, these services were popularized and their definitions formalized by the United Nations 2004 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), a four-year study involving more than 1,300 scientists worldwide. This grouped ecosystem services into four broad categories: provisioning, such as the production of food and water; regulating, such as the control of climate and disease; supporting, such as nutrient cycles and crop pollination; and cultural, such as spiritual and recreational benefits.

10 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 EMPAT KATEGORI JASA-JASA EKOSISTEM Provisioning services food (including seafood and game), crops, wild foods, and spices water pharmaceuticals, biochemicals, and industrial products energy (hydropower, biomass fuels) Regulating services carbon sequestration and climate regulation waste decomposition and detoxification purification of water and air crop pollination pest and disease control Supporting services nutrient dispersal and cycling seed dispersal Primary production Cultural services cultural, intellectual and spiritual inspiration recreational experiences (including ecotourism) scientific discovery

11 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 KAPITAL ALAM Natural capital is the extension of the economic notion of capital (manufactured means of production) to goods and services relating to the natural environment. Natural capital is thus the stock of natural ecosystems that yields a flow of valuable ecosystem goods or services into the future. For example, a stock of trees or fish provides a flow of new trees or fish, a flow which can be indefinitely sustainable. Natural capital may also provide services like recycling wastes or water catchment and erosion control. Since the flow of services from ecosystems requires that they function as whole systems, the structure and diversity of the system are important components of natural capital.

12 LINGKUNGAN sbg ‘SUBSET’ dari EKONOMI EKONOMI EKOSISTEM Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

13 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 REVOLUSI INDUSTRI MASA DEPAN The "next industrial revolution" depends on the espousal of four central strategies: 1.The conservation of resources through more effective manufacturing processes, 2.The reuse of materials as found in natural systems, 3.A change in values from quantity to quality, 4.Investing in natural capital, or restoring and sustaining natural resources.

14 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Natural capital is described in the book Natural Capitalism as a metaphor for the mineral, plant, and animal formations of the Earth's biosphere when viewed as a means of production of oxygen, water filter, erosion preventer, or provider of other ecosystem services. It is one approach to ecosystem valuation, an alternative to the traditional view of all non-human life as passive natural resources, and to the idea of ecological health. Human knowledge and understanding of the natural environment is never complete, therefore the boundaries of natural capital “expand or contract” as knowledge is gained or lost. KAPITAL ALAM

15 = EKONOMI NEO-KLASIK No Ingredients, only labor and capital P = f(L,K)= AL a. BK b (Cobb-Douglas multiplication) Labor (Chef ) Kapital (Mixing bowl) x ROTI? Kapital (oven) X Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

16 = INFINITE SUBSTITUT-ABILITY: 2P = f(L,K)= 2AL a. 2BK b More Chefs or Bigger Mixing bowl x More Bread? EKONOMI NEO-KLASIK Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

17 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 HUBUNGAN MANUSIA DENGAN LINGKUNGAN SEKITARNYA The Ecological Economics Model of the relationship between the Human Economy and the Earth System highlighting the importance of sources, sinks, feedbacks and scale. The Earth System can be viewed as the Natural Capital and all other forms of capital are nested within and dependent upon it. Population can be thought of as Human Capital, referring not just to population size, but also to people’s education, skill sets, norms, standards and laws.

18 UNGKAPAN-UNGKAPAN “There is no reason we can’t have a perfectly healthy economy with virtually no resources whatsoever” Robert Solow “We can do without agriculture because it’s only 2% of the economy.”Norgaard? “neo-classical economics is a form of brain damage” - - Hazel Henderson Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

19 EKONOMI - EKOLOGIS NO “EXTERNALITIES” Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

20 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 EKSTERNALITAS Ecological economics is founded upon the view that the neoclassical economics (NCE) assumption that environmental and community costs and benefits are mutually canceling "externalities" is not warranted. Juan Martinez Alier, for instance shows that the bulk of consumers are automatically excluded from having an impact upon the prices of commodities, as these consumers are future generations who have not been born yet. Concerning these externalities, Paul Hawken argues that the only reason why goods produced unsustainably are usually cheaper than goods produced sustainably is due to a hidden subsidy, paid by the non-monetized human environment, community or future generations.

21 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 VALUASI EKONOMI JASA-JASA LINGKUNGAN The economic valuation of ecosystem services also involves social communication and information, areas that remain particularly challenging and are the focus of many researchers. In general, the idea is that although individuals make decisions for any variety of reasons, trends reveal the aggregative preferences of a society, from which the economic value of services can be inferred and assigned. The six major methods for valuing ecosystem services in monetary terms are: 1. Avoided cost Services allow society to avoid costs that would have been incurred in the absence of those services (e.g. waste treatment by wetland habitats avoids health costs) 2.Replacement cost Services could be replaced with man-made systems (e.g. restoration of the Catskill Watershed cost less than the construction of a water purification plant)

22 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 VALUASI EKONOMI JASA-JASA LINGKUNGAN 3. Factor income Services provide for the enhancement of incomes (e.g. improved water quality increases the commercial take of a fishery and improves the income of fishers) 4.Travel cost Service demand may require travel, whose costs can reflect the implied value of the service (e.g. value of ecotourism experience is at least what a visitor is willing to pay to get there) 5.Hedonic pricing Service demand may be reflected in the prices people will pay for associated goods (e.g. coastal housing prices exceed that of inland homes) 6.Contingent valuation Service demand may be elicited by posing hypothetical scenarios that involve some valuation of alternatives (e.g. visitors willing to pay for increased access to national parks)

23 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 INTERAKSI EKOSISTEM DAN EKONOMI “Eminent biologists and U.N. reports concur that “business-as-usual” will drive half of all species on Earth to extinction within this century. Collectively, we are violating the first precept—“do not harm living beings”—on the largest possible scale. We cannot foresee the biological consequences for human life when so many species that invisibly contribute to our own well- being vanish from the planet.

24 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 HUKUM TERMODINAMIKA Thermodynamics is about energy, its flow and its transformation from one form into another form.

25 EKONOMI - EKOLOGIS Sietem Terbuka Hukum I : Konservasi Massa ECONOMY (waste) (some) Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

26 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 DAUR ULANG MATERIAL Ecological Economics recognizes that the human economy is a smaller, open sub-system of a finite, non-growing, and materially closed ecosystem. The economy is open in that it receives the input of the sun (energy) and natural resources (matter) and transforms those material inputs into commodities through a variety of production processes. Just as commodities are produced, so is the residue, or waste, of these production systems. The waste must eventually be returned to, or absorbed by, the larger environment. Featuring four historic videos "An Introduction to Ecological Economics" "Investing in Natural Capital" "Conversation for a Sustainable Society" "Costa Rica Counts the Future" in one DVD From the Original Videos A Short Primer On Ecological Economics

27 ECONOMY (waste) (some) Sources Sub-surface Resources Sites Surface locations: ie: land Sinks Absorbtion of waste 3 Ss: PAJAK HIJAU = GREEN TAX Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

28 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 HUBUNGAN EKONOMI DAN LINGKUNGAN The ecological economics model. The placement of the economy in the center reflects the fact that it is contained by the environment, not a suggestion that human activity is the "center of the world." The environment is not merely a factor of production (as it is portrayed in the conventional "circular flow" economic model), but rather the containing system for the economy. The environment is the source of all materials humans use and the "sink" into which all wastes go; moreover, wastes stay in the system and do not go "away.“

29 Entropi = disorder, randomness Hukum II: Entropi selalu meningkat ECONOMY (waste) LOW ENTROPYHIGH ENTROPY (dissipated) EKONOMI - EKOLOGIS Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

30 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 EKONOMI PRODUKSI - EKSTERNALITAS The problem is that the way owners use their land may affect others. If they dump garbage on their neighbors' land, clearly they are infringing upon others' rights. If they burn garbage and the resulting smoke blows onto nearby properties? Economics has dealt with this largely by labeling such items externalities, costs for which the responsible party does not pay. It then becomes up to the community, and usually the government, to decide how to deal with externalities.

31 WHAT IS ANTI-ENTROPIC? (SYNTROPIC) ECONOMY (waste) LOW ENTROPYHIGH ENTROPY EKONOMI - EKOLOGIS Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

32 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Using the Ecological Social Accounting Matrix (ESAM) for Lesotho that integrates ecological implications of the LHWP with economic benefits of the project, the paper analysed the impact of lost ecological services downstream the LHWP dams in Lesotho on the well-being of households directly affected by the project (riparians) and the general economy of the country. Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP) Flow diagram of ecological and socio- economic flows.

33 SISTEM TERTUTUP ECONOMY earth EKONOMI - EKOLOGIS Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

34 Sumber: Diunduh 17/11/2012 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES GENERAL CONCEPTUAL MODEL Ecosystem Services are the direct benefits to Quality of Life from Ecosystem Structure and Function.

35 SCALE-Full World or Empty World? Referensi: Ecological Economics Principles & Applications, Farley and Daly Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

36 Sumber: Zhang, W., Rickets, T., Kremen, C., Carney, K., Swinton, S. (2007). Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecological Economics, 64: ECOLOGICAL GOODS AND SERVICES AND NATURAL CAPITAL Ecosystem Services and Dis-Services From Agriculture

37 DIS-UTILITAS MARGINAL Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

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39 PERBEDAAN-PERBEDAAN Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

40 ECONOMY (waste) (some) Sumberdaya Sub-surface Resources MODEL SKY-TRUST Ke Hulu…….! Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

41 Sumber: …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input–output model: A case of Suzhou in China Sai Liang, Tianzhu Zhang Waste Management 32 (2012) 220–225. Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input–output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

42 Reuse of wastewater effluent in concrete mixing and the effect of high temperatures on its residual properties Jasem M. Alhumoud and Mohammad Terro. Int. J. Environment and Sustainable Development, Vol. 9, Nos. 1/2/3, 2010 This paper investigates the suitability of using wastewater effluent for mixing in concrete. In particular, the effect of elevated temperatures up to 700°C on the compressive strength of concrete made with treated wastewater has been experimentally studied. The concrete specimens consisted of cubes that were cast using potable water (PW), primary treated wastewater (PTWW), secondary treated wastewater (STWW), and tertiary treated wastewater (TTWW) obtained from a local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The properties of concrete that were tested consisted of: setting time, compressive strength at ambient and elevated temperatures (up to 700°C), and resistance to corrosion of reinforcing steel. In general, at elevated temperatures, the strength of concrete made with treated wastewater exhibited lower values than concrete made with PW. The tertiary treated wastewater, of the type produced from wastewater treatment plants in Kuwait, is found to be suitable for mixing concrete with no adverse effects.

43 RECYCLING BIOWASTE – HUMAN AND ANIMAL HEALTH PROBLEMS Ann Albihn Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2002, 43(Suppl 1):S69-S75 Biowaste from the food chain is of potential benefit to use in agriculture. Agriculture in general and organic farming in particular needs alternative plant nutrients. However, the quality concerning hygiene and soil contaminants must be assured. This recycling has to be regulated in a way that harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man are prevented. The problems with heavy metals and organic contaminants have been focused on. Still, maximum threshold values are continuously discussed to avoid an increase of soil concentrations. The effect on the ecosystems of residues from use of medicines needs further attention. There is also a risk for a spread of antibiotic resistant micro-organisms in the environment and then to animals and man. Infectious diseases may be spread from biowaste and new routes of disease transmission between animals and humans can be created. Zoonotic diseases in this context play a central role. Pathogens recently introduced to a country may be further spread when biowaste is recycled. The very good health status of domestic animals in the Nordic countries may then quickly change. The quality of biowaste is of enormous importance if biowaste is to gain general acceptance for agricultural use, especially for organic production. A balance needs to be maintained between risk and advantage for its use.

44 SKY - TRUST MODEL Key Features of U.S. Sky Trust Here are the key features of the proposed U.S. Sky Trust. 1.Carbon emissions cap set initially at billion tons, the 1990 level 2.Tradable carbon emission permits sold annually to energy companies at the top of the carbon chain. 3.All revenue from permit sales goes into a nationwide trust. 4.Trust pays equal annual dividends to all U.S. citizens (like the Alaska Permanent Fund). 5.Dividends can be placed tax-free in Individual Retirement Accounts or Individual Development Accounts for children. 6.Initial price ceiling on carbon emission permits of $25 a ton; ceiling rises 7 percent a year for four years. 7.Transition Fund to help those most adversely affected by higher carbon prices. Fund starts at 25 percent of permit revenue, declines 2.5 percent per year. Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

45 PENGELOLAAN = GOVERNANCE Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

46 Sumber: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review, Vol. 33, No. 2 …….. Diunduh 17/11/2012 CO2 MITIGATION AND STORAGE METHODS The first step toward CO2 mitigation starts from root of the issue: the conservation and the efficient use of energy. Switching from coal burning to emission-free or low emission alternative forms of energy like hydro and geothermal helps to curtail CO2 emission. For CO2 that cannot be eliminated from conservation efforts, there are further mitigation method available: 1.Storage in geological formation such as deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas fields, in coal seams. 2.Storage in fertilized ocean water where plankton growth increases CO2 absorption from the atmosphere. 3.Storage in soil through agriculture and forestry

47 PENGELOLAAN = GOVERNANCE Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

48 CONSILIENCE “~Resources are infinite and the economy can grow forever” (Julian Simon) “Anyone who thinks you can have infinite growth on a finite planet is either a madman or an economist” (Kenneth Boulding) Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

49 Growth Development Growth = increase in throughput-quantitative Development = qualitative improvement EKONOMI – EKOLOGIS: Human Development Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

50 Intro to Ecological Economics-population GrowthDevelopment Teori Transisi Demografis Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

51 Intro to Ecological Economics-population Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, Pertumbuhan penduduk dunia Negara-negara maju Negara-negara sedang berkembang

52 Intro to Ecological Economics-forest succession Growth Development Reorganization Aggredation Transition Steady-state (mature) Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

53 We hear: “There is no conflict between economic growth and environmental protection!” Sumber: DIUNDUH 17/11/2012 Five building blocks of an inclusive green economy Examples of the green economy in practice show great potential for delivering a “triple bottom line” of job– creating economic growth coupled with environmental protection and social inclusion. However, there are significant barriers to realizing this potential on a large scale.

54 Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

55 GDP 1825: ~$200 BILLION 2000: $41,000 B ILLION OR $41 TRILLION =205X 1825 level. Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

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57 60 Million yrs of CO2 Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

58 KERUSAKAN IKLIM Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, Tipe-tipe Bencana di Dunia Jumlah Bencana Banjir Kekeringan Gempa bumi Badai Tropis Sumber: United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Secretariat, Yokohama 1994

59 CLIMATE DAMAGE Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

60 Europe in August 2003 COUNTRYDEATHS DETAILS France14,802 Temperatures soared to 104 degrees Fahrenheit in parts of the country; temperatures in Paris were the highest since record- keeping began in Germany7000 High temperatures of up to degrees Fahrenheit, the hottest since records began in 1901, raised mortality some 10 percent above average. Spain4230 High temperatures coupled with elevated ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the European Union's health-risk threshold. Italy4175 Temperatures in parts of the country averaged 16 degrees Fahrenheit higher than previous year. UK2045 The first triple digit (Fahrenheit) temperatures were recorded in London. Neth1400 Temperatures ranged some 14 degrees warmer than normal. Portugal1316 Temperatures were above 104 degrees Fahrenheit throughout much of the country. Belgium150 Temperatures exceeded any in the Royal Meteorological Society's records dating back to TOTAL35,118 Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

61 ESA Listings and GDP $10 $9 $8 $7 $6 $5 $4 $3 R 2 = 98.4 Source: The Wildlife Society Technical Review Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

62 Sebab-sebab Bencana Lingkungan Urbanisasi Pertanian Water diversions (e.g., reservoirs) Recreation, tourism development Pencemaran Peternakan Czech et al Bioscience 50(7): Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.

63 Ekstraksi mineral dan Migas Spesies non-alamiah Panen/Pemanenan Modified fire regimes Jalan raya Pembangunan industri Czech et al Bioscience 50(7): Sebab-sebab Bencana Lingkungan Sumber: Introduction to Ecological Economics. Greentax. Gary Flomenhoft-Gund Institute. Sept. 7, 2004.


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