Presentation on theme: "LEE JOSEPH CRONBACH Lee Joseph Cronbach was an American educational psychologist who made significant contributions to psychological testing and measurement."— Presentation transcript:
Lee Joseph Cronbach was an American educational psychologist who made significant contributions to psychological testing and measurement. He was born on April 2nd 1916 in Fresno, California. At the age of five he started elementary; he was enrolled in the upper second grade and he graduated from Fresno high school at the age of fourteen. Later went to Fresno State College where he got a master degree in chemistry and mathematics when he was nineteen years old.
Lee Joseph Cronbach Because of his job, is considerate to be ‘‘ One of the Most Prominent and Influential Educational Psychologist of all the Time’’
CRONBACH’S CONTRIBUTIONS Cronbach’s contributions were notable into three areas: a) Measurement theory b) Program Evaluation C) Instruction
MEASUREMENT THEORY “ The Cronbach Alpha”: Cronbach developed the most frequently used measure of the reliability of psychological education, known as “The Cronbach Alpha”. Cronbach's alpha is a coefficient of reliability. It is commonly used as a measure of the internal consistency or reliability of a psychometric test score for a sample of examinees.
“Generalizability theory”: The G Theory is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability of measurements under specific conditions. This Theory is a technique for estimating the relative magnitudes of various components of error variation and for indicating the most efficient strategy for achieving desired measurement precision.
PROGRAM EVALUATION Cronbach quested for a better explanation of learning in respond to instruction; making countless contributions to educational psychology. In the fifties, Cronbach challenged the field to find "for each individual the treatment to which he can most easily adapt. He suggested that consideration of cognitive treatments and individual together would determine the best payoff because we can expect some attributes of person to have strong interactions with treatment variables.
The evidence continued to show that the learning outcomes were better when the instructor's presentation adapted to the student's aptitude and personality. Anxious or conforming students tend to learn better in highly structured instructional environments; non-anxious or independent students tend to prefer low structure.
This includes several issues such as: The Nature of the Teaching-learning Process. The Measurement of Variables Describing Instructional Interaction. The Evaluation of Educational Programs. Educational Psychology’s aspiration as an emerging social science discipline.
Cronbach’s contributions included: Improvements to the Technology of Psychometric Modeling. Reformulations which went beyond the mathematics. A better explanation of Learning in response to instruction. Sharpened the sensitivity of Educational Research.
Emphasized that the rol of Context is just as essential as improved interpretations. Cronbach developed a framework for Evaluation Design, Implementation and Analysis. Proved that Research is indeed Valuable.
CRONBACH’S ACHIEVEMENTS Notable Essay: The Two Disciplines of Scientific Psychology. The paper Construct validity in Psychological Tests. Cronbach was the president of the American Psychological Association, president of the American Educational Research Association, professor of education at Stanford University and a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences.
Lee Joseph Cronbach was President of the American Psychological Association 1957. President of the American Educational Research Association 1964-1965 He died of congestive heart failure at his home on October 1st, 2001 at the age of eighty five.