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Joining Issues in the Implementation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure Jack Lesko Macromolecules and Interfaces.

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Presentation on theme: "Joining Issues in the Implementation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure Jack Lesko Macromolecules and Interfaces."— Presentation transcript:

1 Joining Issues in the Implementation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in the Civil Infrastructure Jack Lesko Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute Materials Response Group Department of Engineering Science & Mechanics

2 How are we going to fix this?

3 Statistics on Bridges 600,000 Bridges in the US 4-10% in a state of advanced decay  1/3 “structurally deficient" or "functionally obsolete" 132,000 deficiencies attributed to decks decay Cost of rehabilitation$50 billion by the year 2000 or $167 billion for bridges & highways Yet, only $5 billion is annually budgeted

4 What’s being done? Transportation Equity Act for the 21 st Century (TEA21) two central goals: A.) Reduced user delays B.) Deployment of advanced materials (Innovative Bridge & Construction Program) Other Efforts Civil Engineer Research Foundation NIST Composites Institute - CFA/MDA AASHTO ACI

5 High Performance Materials Status

6 Barriers to Routine use of HPM Administrative Fragmentation of the materials suppliers, manufacturers, structural engineers & construction industry Lack of interdisciplinary training for design engineers Cost (first vs. life cycle) Limited commercial capital for development of new systems Incremental - piecemeal approach to FRP bridge design Technical Lack of DOT design specifications Performance vs. Material specification Lack of sufficient long-term data and experience Plethora of new materials, additives & combinations One-for-One material substitution Connection technologies

7 Composites: Directional Stiffness & Strength Strength Stiffness L / T 40:1 25:1 T -Transverse L - Longitudinal Failure mode Longitudinal Transverse

8 Laminated Composites

9 Orthotropy Uni-directional Cross-ply Angle-ply Quasi-Isotropic

10 Bolted Joints & Orthotropy FRP material and orientation influence failure mode and load

11 Unidirectional FRP vs Steel/Concrete Stress (ksi) Strain (%) 400 300 200 100 0 05102030 Carbon/Epoxy E=20-50 Msi  0.06  lbs./in 3 Glass/Epoxy E=7-10 Msi  0.07  lbs./in 3 Steel E=30 Msi  0.28  lbs./in 3 Can we design with a brittle material like FRP?

12 FRP Bridge Decks Rapid rehabilitation technology Raise live load rating by reducing dead load Concerns Connections remain a problem (girder-to- deck & guardrail-to-deck) Internal bonding Stiffness criteria for design (L/?) Wearing surface

13 Deck Connections How do we efficiently, durably and quickly make inter panel and deck to girder connections?

14 Guradrails for FRP Decks Guardrails are attached using either top or side mounting

15 Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Load Resistance Risk How does one incorporate acceptable design approaches for DOT’s?

16 Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composite Structures & Adhesive Systems

17 Martin Marietta Materials 10m (33’) Span 7.3m (24’) Width 0.84m (2’-9”) Depth 10 kg (22 kip) Weight HS20-44 Smith Road Bridge, Butler County, OH

18 Three deck and superstructure elements make up the FRP bridge

19 Butler County Bridge Monitoring Bridge Deck External FO gages Internal FO gages Bondline FO gages Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) used as a strain sensor “Sapphire” chemical sensors for monitoring adhesive cure and moisture uptake ( Foster-Miller )

20 Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) Wave length sensitivity based on grating size I( ) I( ) 

21 Field Bond Line -Moisture Absorption Bond Line Adhesive - Coclesive 1090 (2 Part Epoxy) Fiber-Optic Sensors in Bond Line: “Sapphire Fiber Sensors”

22 Fiber Optic Sensors: Sapphire Fiber Data Wavelength (cm-1) Absorbance 3600 3400 3200 3000 2800 July 8th 1997 Nov 17th, 1997 Jan 28th, 1998 Aug 27th, 1998 Infrared spectroscopy of bondline cure

23 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)Spectra of Derakane 441-400 Aged in water at 65°C until saturation. 1 mol H 2 0 : 4 mol OH “OH” Stretch Region Unaged Aged Absorbance Wavenumbers (cm -1 ) 4000 380036003400 32002800 26002400 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15

24 Composite Pultrusion Process Constant cross section High volume production

25 Martin Marietta Materials, Inc Decks installed or successful bid IA, NY, PA, MD, OH, CA Alliance with

26 Application of the joining adhesive Top surface completion of field joints Martin Marietta Materials, Inc

27 Creative Pultruion Wickwire Run, Aug. 1997 30’ Span 21.7’ Width HS25 Laurel Lick, May 1997 20’ Span 16’ Width HS20-44

28 Bonding of SuperDeck Adhesive bonging area a source of fatigue and strength concerns

29 Hardcore Composites, LLC Magazine Ditch Bridge, DE Cecil County Bridge, MD 9+ decks or bridges in place: DE, NY, PA, OH, MD Market focus: short span, rapid installation, weight savings 5% of bridge rehab market & Zoltek

30 Resin Infusion SCRIMP ™ process Net shape parts Custom tooling Typically room temperature cure VARTM = Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding

31 Wilson Run Bridge, Valley Forge National Historic Park, PA One of the state's oldest wrought iron truss bridges 2- Hour installation Composites

32 Hardcore Deck Installation Cut-away of splice plate to transfer shear and moment. Splice plate Structural adhesive The Salem Ave. project in Ohio is presently experiencing problems due to failure of joining technologies used and field installed

33 Plan View Section A-A 15 ft. 10 ft. Excavated panel of PCC pavement in weigh station off- ramp Adjustable/Simulated bridge girders 5’ x 15’ Composite Deck Section Girder centerline Troutville Weigh Station Deck Test Bed Facility installed November 1999 Traffic Steel access panels

34 Troutville Weigh Station Interstate 81, Troutville, VA 5’ x 15’-3” Composite Deck Section Characterized traffic loads (actual/severe service environment) Routine inspection capability designed into system Flexible foundation design to allow for future experimental bridge decks Laboratory inspection & evaluation Adjustable/Simulated bridge girders Excavated panel of PCC pavement in weigh station off- ramp

35 FRP Deck In-Service Troutville, VA Weigh Station Interstate 81 5,000 vehicles/day Installed Nov. 1999

36 Location of Damage to Deck #2 Foundation girder connections loosen Deck-to-girder connections loosen May 2000

37 Deck Connections support beam flange wearing course steel sleeve Deck #1 Deck #2 Deck #3 “Hook bolt to tie rod”

38 Deck #2 – Service Damage Wear surface cracking corresponding to tube widths Adhesive delamination & tube failure at connection

39 FRP Strengthening External strengthening Hoop reinforcement

40 External Strengthening

41 Where to Next for Adhesives in an FRP Infrastructure?

42 Snap Together Connections? Courtesy of Brandt Goldsworthy & Associates

43 Comments: FRP Bridges New structural forms appropriate for FRP ($, manufacturability, constructability) Vertical integration of industry, design, and construction Emphasis on joining & connections Must beat other/conventional designs on first and or installed cost Interdisciplinary effort - education

44 What’s Needed? Integration of the adhesive folks with the Civil Infrastructure folks Design and manufacturing approach for “off-the-shelf” deck system Connection designs for rehabilitation situations Design approaches to field installation of adhesive bonds Design approach including reliability and warrantee assessment Crash tested guard-rails for FRP decks and girder system bridges Near-Term Long-Term


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