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Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund

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1 Business Research Methods William G. Zikmund
Chapter 15: Questionnaire Design

2 “It is not every question that deserves an answer.”
Publius Syrus (roman,1st century B.C.)


4 A Good Questionnaire Appears
As easy to compose as a good poem But, it is usually the result of long, painstaking work

5 The Major Decisions in Questionnaire Design
1. What should be asked? 2. How should each question be phrased? 3. In what sequence should the questions be arranged? 4. What questionnaire layout will best serve the research objectives? 5. How should the questionnaire be pretested? Does the questionnaire need to be revised?

6 What Should Be Asked? Questionnaire relevance Questionnaire accuracy

7 Phrasing Questions Open-ended questions Fixed-alternative questions

8 by Degree of Structure and Degree of Disguise
Classifying Surveys by Degree of Structure and Degree of Disguise Structured Unstructured Example: Typical descriptive survey with straight-forward, structured questions Survey with open-ended questions to discover “new” answers or focus group interview Survey interview to measure brand A’s image versus competitive brands’ images or brand recall (unaided recall) Projection techniques used mostly for exploratory research Undisguised Disguised

9 Developing a Questionnaire
No hard and fast rules Only guidelines

10 Avoid Complexity: use simple, conversational language
Avoid leading and loaded questions Avoid ambiguity: be as specific as possible Avoid double-barreled items Avoid making assumptions Avoid burdensome questions

11 1. Do you believe that private citizens have the right to
own firearms to defend themselves, their families, and property from violent criminal attack? Yes No Undecided

12 2. Do you believe that a ban on the private ownership
of firearms would be significantly reduce the number of murders and robberies in your community? Yes No Undecided

13 1a. How many years have you been playing tennis on a regular basis?
Number of years: __________ b. What is your level of play? Novice Advanced Lower Intermediate Expert Upper Intermediate Teaching Pro c. In the last 12 months, has your level of play improved, remained the same or decreased? Improved Decreased Remained the same

14 2a. Do you belong to a club with tennis facilities? Yes . . . . . . . -1
No b. How many people in your household - including yourself - play tennis? Number who play tennis ___________ 3a. Why do you play tennis? (Please “X” all that apply.) To have fun To stay fit To be with friends To improve my game To compete To win b. In the past 12 months, have you purchased any tennis instructional books or video tapes? Yes

15 Dear Passenger: American Airlines is pleased to have you on board today. To help us provide the best service possible, we need to know more about you and your opinions of our service. If you are over 11 years old, we would appreciate it if you would complete this questionnaire. Your flight attendant will pick up your completed questionnaire shortly. Thank you.

16 1. Please indicate: Flight number ___________ Date_____________
2a. At the city where you boarded this particular plane, did you make a connection from another flight? Yes, from American Yes, from Other Airline . . 2 No b. Did you board this plane at the airport from which it just took off, or were you a through passenger for which that was an intermediate stop? Boarded here Through passenger 3. How would you rate the overall service from American for this flight, all things considered, from your arrival at the airport terminal until now? Excellent Good Fair Poor Overall Service

17 4. Please rate each of the following with regard to this flight, if applicable.
Excellent Good Fair Poor Courtesy and Treatment from the: Skycap at airport Airport Ticket Counter Agent Boarding Point (Gate) Agent Flight Attendants Your Meal or Snack Beverage Service Seat Comfort Carry-On Stowage Space Cabin Cleanliness Video/Stereo Entertainment On-Time Departure

18 Questionnaire Design Question sequence Question layout Order bias
Funnel technique Filter bias Question layout

19 Pretesting is Important

20 Layout for Internet Questionnaires
Graphical User Interface (GUI) Paging layout going from screen to screen Scrolling layout gives the respondent the ability to scroll down Push buttons Status bar

21 4 Common Question Displays on a Computer Screen
Radio button Drop-down box Check box Open-ended boxes






27 Software that Makes Questionnaires Interactive
Boolean skip and branching logic hidden skip logic Variable piping software Error trapping - forced answering software Interactive help desks

28 WebSurveyor



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