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Chapter 3 Systems Design: Activity-Based Costing.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Systems Design: Activity-Based Costing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Systems Design: Activity-Based Costing

2 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Assigning Overhead Costs to Products Plantwide Overhead Rate A single overhead rate used throughout an entire factory. A simple method, but one that can distort unit product costs. Direct labor has often used as the allocation base for overhead.

3 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Today, direct labor may no longer be a satisfactory base for allocation of overhead.  Direct labor may no longer be highly correlated with overhead costs.  No single allocation basis may be able to adequately reflect the demands that products place on overhead. Today, direct labor may no longer be a satisfactory base for allocation of overhead.  Direct labor may no longer be highly correlated with overhead costs.  No single allocation basis may be able to adequately reflect the demands that products place on overhead. Plantwide Overhead Rate

4 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin The allocation bases depend on the nature of the work performed in each department. In the machining department, overhead may be based on machine-hours, but in the assembly department overhead is based on labor- hours. Finishing Department Shipping Department Painting Department Unfortunately, even departmental rates will not correctly assign overhead in situations where a company has a range of products and complex overhead costs. Departmental Overhead Rates

5 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin CostCost A number of allocation bases are used for assigning costs to products. Activity-Based Costing (ABC) Consumption of Resources ActivitiesActivities Cost Objects (e.g., products and customers) Cost Objects (e.g., products and customers)

6 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Activity Cost Pool a “cost bucket” in which costs related to a particular activity are accumulated Each activity has its own activity rate that is used to apply overhead costs. Activity-Based Costing (ABC)

7 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Designing an ABC System Steps for Implementing ABC  Identify and define activities and activity pools and develop an activity dictionary.  Trace or assign costs to activities and cost objects.  Calculate activity rates.  Assign costs to cost objects.  Prepare necessary reports. Steps for Implementing ABC  Identify and define activities and activity pools and develop an activity dictionary.  Trace or assign costs to activities and cost objects.  Calculate activity rates.  Assign costs to cost objects.  Prepare necessary reports.

8 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Hierarchy of Activities

9 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Unit-Level Activity Batch-Level Activity Facility-Level Activity Product-Level Activity Graphic Example of Activity-Based Costing Labor Related Pool Machine Related Pool Setup Pool Production Order Pool General Factory Pool Parts Admin. Pool First-Stage Cost Assignment Various Manufacturing Overhead Costs Products $/DLH$/MH$/Setup$/Order$/MH $/Part Type Second-Stage Allocations

10 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin  Comtek Sound, Inc. makes two products that are sold to automobile manufacturers, a radio with a built-in CD player and a radio with a built-in DVD player.  For the current year, Comtek has budgeted sales of 50,000 DVD units and 200,000 CD units.  Both products require two direct labor-hours to complete, for a total of 500,000 direct labor hours.  Unit costs for Material and labor are:  Comtek Sound, Inc. makes two products that are sold to automobile manufacturers, a radio with a built-in CD player and a radio with a built-in DVD player.  For the current year, Comtek has budgeted sales of 50,000 DVD units and 200,000 CD units.  Both products require two direct labor-hours to complete, for a total of 500,000 direct labor hours.  Unit costs for Material and labor are: Using Activity-Based Costing

11 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Total manufacturing overhead costs for the current year are estimated to be $10,000,000. The company develops the following overhead rate based upon labor-hours: Predetermined overhead rate $10,000, ,000 DLH = $20 per DLH= Direct Labor-Hours as a Base

12 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin The ABC project team at Comtek has developed the following basic information. Computing Activity Rates

13 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin We can calculate the following activity rates: Using the new activity rates, let’s assign overhead to the two products based upon activity. Computing Activity Rates

14 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Computing Overhead Cost per Unit DVD Units

15 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Computing Overhead Cost per Unit CD Units

16 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Notice that the unit product cost of a CD unit decreased from $110 to $ while the unit cost of a DVD unit increased from $150 to $ Computing Product Costs

17 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin When a company implements activity-based costing, overhead cost often shifts from high-volume to low- volume products with a higher unit product cost resulting for the low-volume products. Low-volume product Shifting of Overhead Cost

18 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Activity-Based Management involves focusing on activities to eliminate waste, decrease processing time, and reduce defects. Benchmarking is a systematic approach to identifying the activities with the greatest room for improvement. It is based on comparing the performance in an organization with the performance of other, similar organizations known for their outstanding performance. Targeting Process Improvements

19 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Benefits of ABC Improves the accuracy of product costs. Improves the accuracy of product costs. Activity cost pools are more homogeneous than departmental cost pools. Activity cost pools are more homogeneous than departmental cost pools. Allocates overhead on the basis of activities that cause overhead costs. Allocates overhead on the basis of activities that cause overhead costs. Benefits of ABC Improves the accuracy of product costs. Improves the accuracy of product costs. Activity cost pools are more homogeneous than departmental cost pools. Activity cost pools are more homogeneous than departmental cost pools. Allocates overhead on the basis of activities that cause overhead costs. Allocates overhead on the basis of activities that cause overhead costs. Evaluation of Activity-Based Costing

20 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Limitations of ABC Cost of implementation may exceed benefits. Cost of implementation may exceed benefits. Products costs are not always relevant when making decisions. Products costs are not always relevant when making decisions. Limitations of ABC Cost of implementation may exceed benefits. Cost of implementation may exceed benefits. Products costs are not always relevant when making decisions. Products costs are not always relevant when making decisions. Evaluation of Activity-Based Costing Benefits of ABC Improves the accuracy of product costs. Improves the accuracy of product costs. Activity cost pools are more homogeneous than departmental cost pools. Activity cost pools are more homogeneous than departmental cost pools. Allocates overhead on the basis of activities that cause overhead costs. Allocates overhead on the basis of activities that cause overhead costs. Benefits of ABC Improves the accuracy of product costs. Improves the accuracy of product costs. Activity cost pools are more homogeneous than departmental cost pools. Activity cost pools are more homogeneous than departmental cost pools. Allocates overhead on the basis of activities that cause overhead costs. Allocates overhead on the basis of activities that cause overhead costs.

21 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Activity-based costing has been implemented in a wide variety of service industries including railroads, hospitals, banks, and data service companies. Activity-Based Costing and Service Industries

22 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Sarvik Company uses activity-based costing. The company has five cost pools shown below. Cost Flows in an ABC System

23 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin At the beginning of the year, the company had inventory balances as follows. Raw materials$3,000 Work in process4,000 Finished goods- 0 - Cost Flows in an ABC System

24 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Transactions recorded by the company: a.Raw materials purchased on account, $915,000. b.Raw materials used in production, $900,000 ($810,000 direct and $90,000 indirect). c.Factory labor costs, $370,000 ($95,000 direct and $275,000 indirect). d.Depreciation of factory assets, $180,000. e.Miscellaneous manufacturing overhead costs incurred on account, $230,000. f.Goods costing $1,650,000 were manufactured. Transactions recorded by the company: a.Raw materials purchased on account, $915,000. b.Raw materials used in production, $900,000 ($810,000 direct and $90,000 indirect). c.Factory labor costs, $370,000 ($95,000 direct and $275,000 indirect). d.Depreciation of factory assets, $180,000. e.Miscellaneous manufacturing overhead costs incurred on account, $230,000. f.Goods costing $1,650,000 were manufactured. Cost Flows in an ABC System

25 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Cost Flows in an ABC System Manufacturing overhead cost was applied to production. Actual activity during the year was:

26 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin The following journal entries would be used to record transactions (a) through (c). Cost Flows in an ABC System

27 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Predetermined overhead rates are determined as follows: Cost Flows in an ABC System

28 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Overhead is applied on the basis of actual activities during the year. Cost Flows in an ABC System

29 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin The following journal entry is made to record applied overhead. Cost Flows in an ABC System

30 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin The following journal entries would be used to record transactions (d) through (f). Cost Flows in an ABC System

31 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin Bal. 20,000 Bal. 4,000 (b) 810,000 (c) 95,000 (f) 761,000 (g) 1, 650,000 Work in Process Bal. 14,000 Manufacturing Overhead (b) 90,000 (c) 275,000 (d) 180,000 (e) 230,000 (g) 761,000 Raw Materials Bal. 3,000 (a) 915,000 Bal. 18,000 (b) 900,000 Accumulated Depreciation (d) 180,000 Wages Payable (c) 370,000 Underapplied Overhead Costs Cost Flows in an ABC System Accounts Payable (a) 915,000 (e) 230,000 1,145,000 Bal. Finished Goods Bal. -0- (g) 1,650,000 Bal. 1,650,000

32 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005 McGraw-Hill /Irwin End of Chapter 3


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