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Miss. Yasmin AL Bobo 32009 IT P lanning & management Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Miss. Yasmin AL Bobo 32009 IT P lanning & management Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Miss. Yasmin AL Bobo IT P lanning & management Introduction

2 Data vs. Information  Data – raw facts or observations typically about physical phenomena or business transactions  Data is the name or measure of an entity, thing or item  Data may relate to reality, or to fiction  Real data may be characters, numbers, or images;  Unreal data may be a fictional movie  Information – data that have been converted into a meaningful and useful context for specific end users

3  Height of a man, suppose 65 inches, is a data;  His name, suppose Jack, is a data;  His weight, suppose 150 lbs is a data;  His color, suppose white is a data; and so on. Examples of Data: 3 Data Vs Information

4 Data vs. Information Information – data that have been converted into a meaningful and useful context for specific end users  Information is the simplified form of data.  When the data is processed or organized it becomes information.

5  The average height or weight of several people, suppose 62 inch, is an information;  The average weight of the class, suppose 130 lbs, is an information; and so on. Examples of Information: 5 Data Vs Information

6 Data vs. Information COE

7 What is an Information System?  Any organized combination of people, hardware, software, communications networks, and data resources that stores, retrieves, transforms, and disseminates information in an organization.

8 Types of Information Systems

9 What is information technology ? information technology (IT) is "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of InfoTech". Information technology is a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information.

10 Information Systems vs. Information Technology  Information Systems (IS)  Information Systems (IS) – all components and resources necessary to deliver information and information processing functions to the organization.  Information Technology (IT)  Information Technology (IT) – various hardware components necessary for the system to operate

11 Types of Information Technologies  Computer Hardware Technologies  Computer Software Technologies  Telecommunications Network Technologies  Data Resource Management Technologies

12 The Systems Development Lifecycle

13 Knowledge Worker Systems  The Knowledge Worker System (KWS) is a computer application designed to help "knowledge workers" to capture and organize work activity information, and to learn, prioritize, and execute their tasks more efficiently and effectively.

14 Technology planning Plan that Reduces risk of financial, technological and data losses caused by disasters Increases return on investment business value realized from technology projects Improves equipment efficiency with planned maintenance activities

15 IT planning IT planning is a filed responsible for creating and executing a strategic technology plan that keeps the organization up-to- date with technology advances and ensures that equipment and software do not become obsolete. The technology plan also focuses on the requirements needed to support new business growth.

16 Why Study Strategic IT?  Technology is no longer an afterthought in forming business strategy, but the actual cause and driver.  IT can change the way businesses compete.

17 IT can help  IT can help Build customer-focused businesses Reengineer business processes Businesses become agile companies Create virtual companies Build knowledge-creating companies

18 IT can help  IT can help Build customer-focused businesses Reengineer business processes Businesses become agile companies Create virtual companies Build knowledge-creating companies

19 The global distribution of spending on information and communication technologies in 2005 as a percentage of the top market

20 Management Challenges 1.Design competitive and effective systems 2. Understand system requirements of global business environment (*) 3. Create information architecture that supports organization’s goal 4. Determine business value of information systems 5. Design systems people can control, understand and use in a socially, ethically responsible manner

21 Information Technology (IT) department The Information Technology (IT) department manages the technology and computer infrastructure that drives an organization's business systems. The IT department is also known as Management Information Systems (MIS or IS) department.

22 Future Vision Current Future Gaps Transformation Plan Development of a Plan to Close the Gap Snapshot of the Current Reality Development of a Future Vision 4 Final Report, Stakeholder Presentation, and Communication IT Strategy Plan Approach has Four Phases

23 Strategic technology planning Utilize our consulting services by outsourcing your IT Strategic Planning with our complete Information Technology package. Our IT services are available throughout San Jose, Silicon Valley and the greater San Francisco Bay Area.outsourcingInformation Technology Computer technology has been advancing so rapidly, and with such a short life span, that strategic technology planning is essential. It must also be aligned with the development of the overall strategic business plan. Without considering the technology plan, several business strategies may not be achievable. The strategic technology plans created by UName IT Solutions tell our clients their current technical capability, and how it fits in with their strategic business plan. The plan also informs them of their business risk due to technical failures and how the IT organization is performing overall. The technology plan provides the business with a roadmap on where, when and how IT investment dollars should be spent.

24 Relationship between IT and organizations

25 Mainstream approaches: Introduction Organization structure “the sum total of the ways in which it divides its labour into distinct tasks and then achieves coordination between them” (Mintzberg, 1979) Components of structure Grouping of people into teams or departments Allocation of activities and responsibilities Reporting lines and the number of subordinates that report to a boss Lines of communication Monitoring of performance and design of reward systems

26 Classical theories View organisations as machines Attempt to develop a systematic and rational approach Development of universal principles to guide management practice E.g. Fayol’s basic principles of administration Functional division of work Hierarchical relationships Bureaucratic forms of control Narrow supervisory span Closely prescribed roles Limitation: Excessive emphasis on vertical reporting hinders communication across functions Matrix structure attempts to resolve this

27 Matrix structure

28 Modern thinking Abandons search for universal principles Best designs and structure are those that have a good ‘fit’ with the environment E.g. systems thinking Analyses activities in terms of inputs, process and outputs Focus on interdependence between parts E.g. contingency theory Accounts for changing environmental demands and opportunities Both approaches emphasise the formal aspects of organizations and largely exclude the informal

29 Organizations as open systems

30 Formal and informal aspects Formal Planned, procedural Officially sanctioned Fixed and rigid Based on authority On the record Reliant upon position Informal Emergent, pragmatic Officially illegitimate Dynamic and flexible Based on trust or reciprocity Off the record Reliant upon personal affinity or political allegiance

31 Techniques for changing design Business process reengineering (BPR) Reorienting businesses around processes rather than function Heavy emphasis on entrepreneurialism Widespread use of information technology Total Quality Management (TQM) Continuous improvement of internal processes Creation of organizational culture with strong customer orientation teamworking A ‘hard’ approachA ‘soft’ approach


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