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Chapter 30 The Americas in the Age of Independence 1 The Land of Promise – The Grayson Family by William S. Jewett (1850)

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 30 The Americas in the Age of Independence 1 The Land of Promise – The Grayson Family by William S. Jewett (1850)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 30 The Americas in the Age of Independence 1 The Land of Promise – The Grayson Family by William S. Jewett (1850)

2 Unlike the North America [the U.S. & Canada[which was governed by the British and their gradual polarization towards democracy through the works of Locke, Thomas Pain, many other European philosophers and their ideals of the importance and power of the people and shared government through “checks & balances,” Latin American colonies had different social environments and a lack of democratic traditions. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2

3 Westward Expansion of the United States Britain cedes territories between Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River in the 1783 Treaty of Paris that ended the Revolutionary War Napoleon Bonaparte sells the Louisiana Territory to President Jefferson in 1803 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark map the territory in an expedition lasting from White settlers start to cross the Mississippi around 1820 Mass migration to the far West begins in the 1840s, mainly via the Oregon Trail. Widespread belief in “manifest destiny” by white Americans to occupy all lands between Atlantic and Pacific 3

4 Westward Expansion of the United States 4 John L. O’Sullivan ( ) Born in 1813 on a ship crossing the Atlantic Was founding editor of the United States Magazine and Democratic Review, a political and literary magazine that promoted Jacksonian Democracy, counterbalancing the more conservative North American Review. Came up with the phrase “manifest destiny” in the July/August 1845 issue of the Democratic Review in and editorial demanding that opposition to the U.S. annexation of the Republic of Texas cease.

5 Conflict with Indigenous Peoples Native peoples resist incursions onto ancestral lands and traditional hunting grounds  Formed alliances, also sought British support in Canada  Wars Between U.S. and Indians in Northwest Territory (later Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota) in the 1790s. U.S. Indian Removal Act of 1830 drives natives in the Southeastern U.S. into “Indian Territory” (Oklahoma)  Cherokees from Georgia, Creek from Alabama, Choctaw and Chickasaw from Mississippi  Many Seminoles in Florida resist removal  Cherokees migrate 800 miles: the Trail of Tears ( ); thousands die en route 5

6 Armed Conflict Sioux, Comanche, Pawnee, and Apache—peoples of the Great Plains and desert Southwest—resist white settlement.  Battle of Little Big Horn: In June 1876, Lakota Sioux destroy U.S. 7 th Calvary Regiment commanded by Colonel George Armstrong Custer in Montana; 268 U.S. soldiers are killed, including Custer and two of his brothers Resistance Becomes Harder: U.S. forces have superior firepower, including cannons and Gatling (machine) gun Dec. 29, 1890: Massacre at Wounded Knee Creek  Nervous U.S. 7 th Calvary Regiment sent to disarm Lakota opens fire, killing 150 Lakota men, women, and children 6

7 The Mexican-American War ( ) Before the war, Mexico included California, New Mexico; a decade earlier, it had also included Texas. Mexico had banned slavery in 1829, in part to keep U.S. cotton growers out (it failed to do so). In Texas, Anglo settlers who were mostly slaveholders declare independence from Mexico in 1836, becoming the “Lone Star Republic”  Texas accepted into Union in 1845 despite Mexican protest Conflict ensues, which U.S. wins decisively; Mexico forced to cede territory in Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) in exchange for 15 million dollars 7

8 Westward Expansion of the United States during the Nineteenth Century 8

9 Sectional Conflict Major issue: Will slavery be allowed in new territories? Tobacco cultivation on decline, but as of 1800, renewed cotton industry due to cotton gin spurs new demand for slaves (importation from African banned in 1808) U.S. slave population rises from 500,000 in 1770 to 2 million in 1820, partly due to importation before 1808, but also from natural reproduction Missouri Compromise (1820) attempts to strike balance between slave and free states Maine admitted as free state with slave state Missouri in ’30 parallel agreed upon as free/slave state line for future admissions to the Union (older states including Missouri excepted) 9

10 Sectional Conflict Missouri Compromise Map

11 Roots of the U.S. Civil War ( ) Abraham Lincoln elected president in 1860  Committed to an antislavery position, but not an abolitionist Issue of slavery highlighted principle of states’ rights and the scope of federal authority Eleven southern states withdraw from Union during the winter of  Southern economy dependent on cotton as cash crop  Northern economy developing industrialization, wage earners (although New York City economically more reliant on Southern cotton than most Northern cities) 11

12 The American Civil War First two years of war inconclusive 1863: Lincoln signs Emancipation Proclamation, makes abolition of slavery explicit goal of the war Battle of Gettysburg (1863) turns tide against South; North gains even more momentum when hard- nosed Ulysses S. Grant takes command of U.S. forces in March Grant seeks to annihilate Confederate manpower. North wins after four years of bloody conflict: Union loses 140,400 soldiers in combat; Confederacy loses 72,500 soldiers in combat. Confederacy ultimately outmatched by manpower and industrial capacity. 12

13 The American Civil War 13 The Union and Confederacy in 1864 (Light Blue: Union Border States that Permitted Slavery)

14 American Economic Development California gold rush of 1848, also Canadian gold rushes, attract migrants from around the globe Others migrate to work in factories, railroad construction sites, plantations, support services European Migrations: Mostly Irish and Germans before 1880, but then transitions to mostly Eastern Europeans and Southern Europeans; mass immigration continues until quota laws passed in the 1920s Congress passes the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 to limit economic competition from non-whites on the West Coast. Some, especially Italians, migrate and return several times over the course of their lives. Roughly 33 million people came to the U.S. from 1820 to

15 Economic Expansion British capital spurs vast expansion of U.S. industry from the 1840s through the century Massive expansion of rail system:  31,000 miles before 1861, almost all in eastern U.S.  Transcontinental railroad completed in 1869  200,000 miles by 1900, coast to coast  Necessitates division of U.S. into four time zones in 1881 to keep railroad times precise Massive expansion of economy,  Electrification of urban areas  Trade unions develop: Knights of Labor organized in 1869; dealt a major blow by the Haymarket Riot and bombing in

16 Societies in the United States U.S. population is the most culturally diverse in the Western hemisphere in the nineteenth century Indigenous peoples subject to formal policy of forced assimilation  Destruction of buffalo-based way of life on the Great Plains  Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 shifts policies away from collective tribal reservations; divides up lands into individual property in hopes encouraging assimilation into Euro-American society  Native children taken from families, enrolled in white- controlled boarding schools 16

17 Freed Slaves Slavery ended, but social discrimination remains Northern armies occupy southern states, forced social program of Reconstruction ( ) Violent backlash follows their departure in 1877 Land-poor freed slaves forced to work as sharecroppers, kept in a permanent state of debt Racialized violence and intimidation continue; first Ku Klux Klan rises after the war, although is repressed by federal “Force Acts” in 1870 and

18 Canada: Independence without War Regional divisions in Canadian society, but independence achieved without war  British and French Canadians  French territories ceded after Seven Years’ War ( )  Concessions made to large French population Recognition of Roman Catholic church, French law code After 1781, British population in Ontario joined by loyalists fleeing U.S. War of Independence 18

19 The War of 1812 U.S. declares war on Britain over encroachments during Napoleonic wars British forces in Canada repel U.S. attacks Social tensions between French and English populations remain British wish to avoid repeat of U.S. War of Independence, gradually extend home rule between 1840 and 1867  Durham Report (1839) by John George Lambton ( ) 19

20 British North America Act (1867) Joins Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick as Dominion of Canada  Other provinces join later Provincial and federal governments with governor-general as British representative Dominion controls all domestic affairs  Foreign affairs controlled by London until 1931 First Prime Minister John A. Macdonald ( ) purchases territory, builds trans-Canada railroad (completed 1885) 20

21 Canadian Prosperity British investments in Canada Policy of economic development: the National Policy  Attract migrants, promote start-up industries, build transportation infrastructure U.S. also invests in Canada, owning 30 percent of Canadian industry by

22 The Dominion of Canada in the Nineteenth Century 22

23 Canadian Cultural Contrasts British and French each view selves as principal founding peoples of Canada; principal social tensions were between them  Small population of slaves (before it was abolished in the British Empire in 1833)  Later Nineteenth Century: Small groups of freed and runaway slaves from the U.S., as well as Chinese migrants 23

24 Canadian Cultural Contrasts Louis Riel ( ): Canadian politician who is métis (mixed Indian and French heritage)  Leads Red River Rebellion of ; it is suppressed, but leads to the founding of Manitoba Province  Serves in Parliament in  Leads North-West Rebellion in 1885  Defeated, convicted of high treason, and executed. 24

25 Latin America Creole elites produce republics with constitutions, but do not really change social order (just kick out peninsulares) Less experience with self-rule compared to North Americans  Spanish, Portuguese more autocratic than British  Masses of landless peasants have no political say Creoles also limit wide participation in politics; less than 5 percent of white males allowed to vote Overall, leads to very unstable political systems 25

26 Latin America Conflict with indigenous peoples  Especially in Argentina and Chile; conquered indigenous people to take the most productive agricultural land Caudillos (regional military leaders) come to power  Juan Manuel de Rosas ( ), a caudillo, becomes dictator of Argentina, maintaining power from 1829 to He did so in a brutal fashion, and also crushed the resistance of indigenous peoples. 26

27 Mexican Reform Attempts After U.S.-Mexican War the dictatorship of General Santa Anna is removed La Reforma movement led by Benito Juárez ( ) comes to power Juárez attempts to limit power of military and church with Constitution of 1857 Meets powerful conservative opposition and is forced out of Mexico City in

28 Mexican Reform Attempts Juárez suspends loan payments to foreign powers to better Mexico’s economic condition, but French, Spanish, and British forces intervene to collect investments French and Mexican forces clash in 1862; U.S. too busy with its own Civil War to intervene (Monroe Doctrine) Napoleon III of France tries to install a puppet emperor of Mexico, Austrian Archduke Maximilian, but Mexican forces capture and execute him in

29 The Mexican Revolution ( ) Middle-class Mexicans, peasants, and workers join to overthrow dictator Porfirio Díaz ( ) Revolutionary leaders Emiliano Zapata ( ) and Francisco (Pancho) Villa ( ) lead masses of landless peasants Popular, but unable to take major cities Mexican Constitution of 1917 addresses many of the major concerns of land redistribution 29

30 The Mexican Revolution ( ) 30 Emiliano Zapata ( ) Porfirio Diaz ( ) Pancho Villa ( )

31 Latin America in the Nineteenth Century 31

32 Latin American Dependence Limited foreign investment  Small size of Latin American markets Interest in exploiting raw materials  Argentina: beef  Guatemala: coffee & bananas Limited industrializing initiatives foiled by government corruption Yet significant export-driven rise in economy 32

33 Diversity in Latin America Complex social structure, based on racial background  Europeans, natives, African slaves, and combinations thereof Increasing migration in nineteenth century from Asia Some conflicts between cosmopolitan cities and rural areas Symbol of rural culture: the gaucho cowboy 33


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