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ROMA PEOPLE IN SLOVAKIA AND IN CENTRAL EUROPE Eva Farkašová Research Institute for Child Psychology and Pathopsychology Bratislava, Slovakia Research Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "ROMA PEOPLE IN SLOVAKIA AND IN CENTRAL EUROPE Eva Farkašová Research Institute for Child Psychology and Pathopsychology Bratislava, Slovakia Research Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 ROMA PEOPLE IN SLOVAKIA AND IN CENTRAL EUROPE Eva Farkašová Research Institute for Child Psychology and Pathopsychology Bratislava, Slovakia Research Institute for Child Psychology and Pathopsychology Bratislava, Slovakia May 17, 2011 Study Visit No. 194

2 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE R OMA IN C ENTRAL E UROPE The Roma came from India Their migration into Europe began probably in 11 th century They moved in several waves – within many years They moved in several ways and directions –through northern Africa to Pyrenean peninsula –main stream - through the Balkans to Central Europe They were originally named Asincani, Atsingani and similar words were derived from this root (Zigeuner /Germ., Cigán /Slov.; Gypsy /Engl.)

3 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE R OMA IN C ENTRAL E UROPE First documentaries about their presence in Central Europe are from 13 th century In time of their move through lands, kingdoms and empires, they were accepted by local authorities due to letters or schedules confirming their protection by kings Groups of Roma came from different castes Some of them were musicians, others were helpful in time of wars and rebellions; prophesy or palmistry were wide-spread means of their living

4 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE R OMA IN C ENTRAL E UROPE During 15 th century their black-smith mastering was welcome especially in south-eastern Europe because of threat of wars from near Turkish realm and other enemies Living conditions for Roma people became worse in 17 th century due to disastrous economic situation caused by wars in Central Europe The number of Roma inhabitants in the Ungarian kingdom increased in consequence of their discrimination in western lands

5 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE R OMA IN C ENTRAL E UROPE Robberies of native inhabitants by Roma nomads were very frequent and thus protests and complaints against them grew up Edicts in 18 th century (the century of the Enlightment) aimed to settle down the nomad ethnics and assimilate them – by means of changing their way of life and, beside other steps, also by education of Roma children In spite of many discriminating and liquidating steps, Roma, as the ethnics, has survived In spite of huge effort to assimilate them, they are still unique and individual and stronger than ever

6 C URRENT CONDITIONS Several castes and groups do exist in Roma ethnics until now Roma people differ a lot in way and standard of their living, educational level, their economic conditions etc. A situation of majority of the Roma is bad: –they live in marginalized localities (i.e. separated settlements, separated parts of villages and towns) –their household is deeply under common standard, especially in a sphere of hygienic and material facilities

7 C URRENT CONDITIONS –the adults are unemployed for a long time and families are reliant on state social support –the adults have low educational level (they un- /finished just basic school or special basic school) –native language is a local Roma dialect Roma children, we are dealing with, come from socially disadvantaged milieu which is characterized by the attributes mentioned above

8 C URRENT CONDITIONS Education is considered to be the most significant factor in the integration of Roma people Different culture with –traditions, habits, attitudes and value system, –style of living and mentality, –style of child nurture and language has conduced to characteristics which are most significant for education and contacts with Roma pupils and their families (- and these make often difficulties in schooling)

9 EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN SLOVAKIA

10 kindergarten university basic elementary 4 y. lower secondary 5 y. school upper secondary schools vocational schools gymnasium 4 – 8 y. SpecialschoolSpecialschool

11 E DUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN S LOVAKIA Kindergarten - from the age of 2/3 to 6 - Nursery schools – for children before 3 (Ministry of Health) Basic school – 9 years - from the age of 6 to 15 - elementary/ primary level – 4 years - lower secondary level – 5 years Special basic school - physically, sensory and mentally handicapped children - after finishing a special basic school - pupils can get some vocational training or be trained in some simple types of vocation (gardening, sewing)

12 E DUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN S LOVAKIA Compulsory school attendance: 10 years (ages 6-16) - pupils have to continue at a secondary school at least 1 year Secondary school –gymnasium / grammar school –business college –secondary technical school –vocational school and training centre after 2-3 years – vocational certificate after 4 years – graduation (school-leaving exam) University

13 S PECIFICS IN EDUCATION OF R OMA CHILDREN Roma children from socially disadvantaged milieu are mostly nurtured in their families and communities until they are 6 Process of their socialization passes in another way than that of the majority children More stress is given to non-verbal communication than verbal one in Roma ethnics comparing to the majority –e.g. the nurture is based on emotional relations, it is „free”, i.e. without a regular daily system and any duties for young children, they are not trained to be self-reliant and individual

14 S PECIFICS IN EDUCATION OF R OMA CHILDREN Their experiences, habits and skills differ from those expected from 6 year olds –e.g. they get information on practical aspects of everyday life, not on „academic” ones – needed at school; They communicate in Roma language (a local Roma dialect) and don’t master the educational ones Their verbal and style abilities are insufficient for being used in education also because a vocabulary of Roma dialects generally contains a low number of words lacks a lot of abstract terms, some concepts of comparison, generalization, time sequence, etc.

15 S PECIFICS IN EDUCATION OF R OMA CHILDREN Roma language can be used as a supportive language at the beginning of school attendance  The conditions in these Roma communities are deficiently stimulating the development of child cognitive functions/ mental abilities  A lot of Roma children are not prepared to begin the standard education and to be successful in a basic school

16 S PECIFICS IN EDUCATION OF R OMA CHILDREN There are several possibilities to meet special educational needs of Roma children –teacher's assistant speaking Roma language –„zero“ classes –specialized classes –individual educational programme These will be spoken about in more details in next presentations during this week and we can discuss them

17 SOME ACTIVITIES OF VÚDPAP CONCERNING ROMA ISSUES

18 R ESEARCH, METHODOLOGIES AND PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES Specifics in cognitive development of Roma children - longitudinal research Verification of educational procedures in specialized classes Development of School Readiness Test for Roma children Standardization of non-verbal intelligence test SON-R 2½-7 – Roma children included into the sample Intervention programmes for pre-schoolers and young learners

19 R ESEARCH, METHODOLOGIES AND PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES Carrier guidance programme for Roma pupils Development of positive interethnic attitudes by self-experience activities – a methodology for teachers containing games on cooperation, communication, solving problems, etc. „Not to lose one´s bears. A handbook for beginners.“ – a methodology for teachers and a workbook for pupils Practical activities: Self-experience activities

20 Thank you for your attention!


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