Presentation on theme: "Spring 2012-2013 Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV. Phone: +90 (312) 233 13 39 Hours Class 4, 5, 6: Monday09:40 – 11:30 Class 1, 2,"— Presentation transcript:
Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
Phone: +90 (312) Hours Class 4, 5, 6: Monday09:40 – 11:30 Class 1, 2, 3: Tuesday11:40 – 13:30 Office: Monday13:40 – 15:30 Office: Wednesday13:40 – 15:30 Office: Thursday13:40 – 15:30 Room Class 1, 2, 3: L-A14 Class 4, 5, 6: L-A15 Office: L CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV
Text Book: Structured Computer Organization, 5-th edition, Andrew S. Tannenbaum, Prentice Hall, 2006 Computer Organization and Embedded Systems, 7 -th edition, Carl Hamacher, Zvonko Vranesich, Safwat Zaky, McGraw Hill, 2012 Reference Material: Computer Organization and Architecture Designing for Performance, 7-th edition, William Stallings, Prentice Hall, 2006 Computer Organization and Architecture An Integrated Approach, Miles Murdocca and Vincent Heuring, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2007 Course Web Page Course Assistant Faris Serdar Taşel CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 3
1. Attendance5% 2. Quizzes15% 3. Lab Work25% 4. Midterm20% Will cover the concepts learned thus far. Closed books, notes, etc. 5. Final35% Will cover all the topics learned during the semester Closed books, notes, etc. Rules of the Game Attend every class Be on time Pay attention during class All work should be your own Ask questions anytime, but raise your hand Remember that the program language is English Grades are earned, not given CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 4
The Zeroth Generation CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 5
The Zeroth Generation ( ) Blaise Pascal ( ) A working calculator machine was built in It was entirely mechanical, using gears. Addition and subtraction only. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 6
The Zeroth Generation ( ) Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646 – 1716) Built thirty years after. Arithmetic operations: - Addition - Subtraction - Multiplication - Division It’s equivalent of four- function pocket calculator. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV7
The Zeroth Generation ( ) Charles Babbage (1792 – 1871) Difference engine – could only add and subtract. Was designed to compute tables of numbers useful for naval navigation. The most interesting feature was its output method: it punched its results into a cooper engraver’s plate with a steel die. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV8
The Zeroth Generation ( ) Analitycal Engine and Punch Cards The mill could accept operands from the store, then process them, and finally return the result to the store. It had four components: The Store (memory); The mill (computation unit); The Input Section (punched card reader); The output section (punched and printed output); Four arithmetic operations. Store consists of 1000 words of 50 decimal digits. It was general purpose. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV9
The Zeroth Generation ( ) Ada Augusta Lovelace (Daughter of the famed British poet Lord George Gordon Byron) She was the world’s first programmer. The programming language Ada® is named in her honor. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 10
The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1955) CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 11
The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1955) ENIGMA – coder and encoder used by Germany during World War II. First electronic computer COLOSSUS (1943) was designed only to read decoded messages from ENIGMA. (Alan Turing). It was dead end computer. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 12
CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 13 COLOSSUS (1943)
The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1955) ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer). It consisted of vacuum tubes and 1500 relays. Weighted 30 tons and consumed 1400 kW of power. Designed by John Mauchley and J. Presar Eckert. Architecturally, the machine had 20 registers, each capable of holding a 10-digit decimal number. ENIAC was programmed by setting up 6000 multiposition switches and connecting a multitude of sockets with a variable forest of jumper cables. Project was finished at CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 14
The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1955) EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) known as machine were ideas of von Neumann were realized. Block diagram of the von Neumann architecture: MQ - multiplier quotient register; IR - instruction register; IBR - instruction buffer register; MAR - memory address register; MDR - memory data register. The First Generation computers – experiments on hardware architecture. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 15
The First Generation – Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1955) First industrial computer IBM 701. The 701 had bit words memory with two instructions per word. It was the first in a series of scientific machines that came to dominate the industry within a decade. Three years later come 704, which initially had 4096 words of core memory, 36-bit instructions and floating-point hardware. In 1958, IBM began production of its last vacuum tube machine, the 709, which was basically a beefed-up 704. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 16
The Second Generation – Transistors ( ) CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 17
The Second Generation – Transistors ( ) The First transistor (1948) In the late 40’s three American scientists named William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs, announced the creation of the first transistor. The first transistorized computer was built at M.I.T.’s Lincoln laboratory, a 16- bit machine. The most interesting computers were produced by DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) and IBM (International Business Machine) For computers of this generation there were designed many new peripheral devices. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 18
The Second Generation – Transistors ( ) DEC computer PDP-8 (1965) The PDP-8 is a 12 bit single accumulator machine which can address up to 32K 12 bit words. It has 8 basic instructions and the PDP-8/E executes them in 1.2 microsecond for simple instructions to 4 microsecond for complex memory reference instructions. This gives the machine about a 0.5 MIPS rating. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 19
The Second Generation – Transistors ( ) (PDP-8 Peripheral Devices) The RK05J Disk Drive is a removable media hard drive with a total capacity of 1.6 million 12 bit words. The RX01/RX02 Disk Drive a removable media 8 inch floppy drive. The RX01 was the first generation drive dating to around The RX02 was a double capacity version around The RX02 double density drive stored 256k words or 512k bytes on a disk. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 20
The Second Generation – Transistors ( ) (PDP-8 Peripheral Devices) The PC04 high speed paper tape reader/punch. Paper tape was an inexpensive method for storing and transferring data. PDP-8 TU10 1/2" tape drive CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 21
The Second Generation – Transistors ( ) (PDP-8 Peripheral Devices) The VR14 is a X/Y display monitor. Viewable Area 6.75 x 9 inches. ASR 33 Teletype Data Transfer Rate 10 characters per second, 110 baudl. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 22
The Second Generation – Transistors ( ) ( IBM 1401 ) IBM 1401 Data Processing System (1959). From the left: 1402 Card Read-Punch, 1401 Processing Unit, 1403 Parallel Printer. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 23
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits ( ) CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 24
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits ( ) Robert Norton Noyce (December 12, 1927 – June 3, 1990) Nicknamed "the Mayor of Silicon Valley", co- founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel Corporation in He is also credited (along with Jack Kilby) with the invention of the integrated circuit or microchip which fueled the personal computer revolution and gave Silicon Valley its name. In July 1959, he filed for U.S. Patent 2,981,877 "Semiconductor Device and Lead Structure", a type of integrated circuit. That was invention of the first integrated circuit CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 25
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits ( ) IBM System/360. A family of computers. Contrasting with at-the-time normal industry practice, IBM created an entire series of computers (or CPUs) from small to large, low to high performance, all using the same instruction set (with two exceptions for specific markets). This feat allowed customers to use a cheaper model and then upgrade to larger systems as their needs increased without the time and expense of rewriting software. IBM was the first manufacturer to exploit microcode technology to implement a compatible range of computers of widely differing performance, although the largest, fastest, models had hard-wired logic instead. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 26
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits ( ) DEC PDP-11. A family of computers. 1971: The PDP-11/45 was an excellent computational tool for large multi-user, multi-task installations. Through memory management, memory could be expanded to 128K, which included a combination of bi-polar and MOS memory. Other features included a greatly expanded floating point processor. 1975: The PDP-11/70 represented the high end of PDP-11 architecture with the capacity for supporting the speed, addressing range and bandwidth required in large systems applications. It was the first PDP-11 to use cache memory. CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 27
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits ( ) From its beginnings in the 1940s, writing software has evolved into a profession concerned with how best to maximize the quality of software and of how to create it. Quality can refer to how maintainable software is, to its stability, speed, usability, testability, readability, size, cost, security, and number of flaws or "bugs", as well as to less measurable qualities like elegance, conciseness, and customer satisfaction, among many other attributes. Computer hardware was application-specific. Scientific and business tasks needed different machines. Due to the need to frequently translate old software to meet the needs of new machines, high-order languages like FORTRAN, COBOL, and ALGOL were developed. Hardware vendors gave away systems software for free as hardware could not be sold without software. A few companies sold the service of building custom software but no software companies were selling packaged software. Totally were designed more than 100 different high-order languages, but now only few of them are in use. Development of Software 1 CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 28
The Third Generation – Integrated Circuits ( ) An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, BSD, iOS, Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, Windows Phone, and IBM z/OS. All these, except Windows and z/OS, share roots in UNIX. Development of Software 2 CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 29
The Fourth Generation – Very Large Scale Integration ( ?) CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 30
The Fourth Generation – Very Large Scale Integration A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits. It is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. It is an example of sequential digital logic, as it has internal memory. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system. The advent of low-cost computers on integrated circuits has transformed modern society. General-purpose microprocessors in personal computers are used for computation, text editing, multimedia display, and communication over the Internet. Many more microprocessors are part of embedded systems, providing digital control of a myriad of objects from appliances to automobiles to cellular phones and industrial process control. Microprocessor CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 31
The Fourth Generation – Very Large Scale Integration Milestones of the microprocessors CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 32 Intel 4004 – bit-slice 4-bit microprocessor (1971). Intel 8080 – 8-bit microprocessor (1974). Intel 8088 – 16-bit microprocessor (1979). The base of first Personal Computer Pentium – 32-bit microprocessor (1993).
The Fourth Generation – Very Large Scale Integration RFID Chips CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 33 RFID stands for Radio-Frequency IDentification. The acronym refers to small electronic devices that consist of a small chip and an antenna. The chip typically is capable of carrying 2,000 bytes of data or less. The RFID device serves the same purpose as a bar code or a magnetic strip on the back of a credit card or ATM card; it provides a unique identifier for that object. And, just as a bar code or magnetic strip must be scanned to get the information, the RFID device must be scanned to retrieve the identifying information.
History of Computer Designing CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 34
Computers in the USSR CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 35 First generation Soviet computer MESM (Small Electronic Computing Machine) was designed by S. Lebedev in Kiev (1951) vacuum tubes. Clocking frequency – 50 kHz; rating – 50 op/sec; 16-bit; RAM memory 32 data words, 64 instruction words.
Computers in the USSR BESM (Big Electronic Computing Machine) (1952) CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 36 First generation Soviet computer BESM was designed by S. Lebedev in Moskov (1952) vacuum tubes. Clocking frequency – 100 kHz; rating – op/sec; 39-bit floating point ALU; RAM memory 32 data words, 64 instruction words. External memory – magnetic drum 1024 words, magnetic tape words Then were manufactory produced models BESM-2, and versions for military applications M-40, M-50
Computers in the USSR BESM-6 (Big Electronic Computing Machine) (1965) CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 37 Second generation Soviet computer BESM -6. Rate 1 MIPS. 48-bit registers and ALU. Address bus 15 bit. Clock frequency 10 MHz.
Computers in the USSR Promin (Beam) (1963) CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 38 MIR-2 (Machine for Engineering Computations) (1969) op/sec. RAM – bit words. ROM 1,6x10 6 bit.
Computers in the USSR CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 39 SETUN the unique computer that work in system of base three ( ). Density of information is described by equation where X – base of the system. The optimal base is constant e = 2, Trite – name of the digit in this system.
Computers in the USSR CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 40 Soviet military super computer 5Э53 – designed for anti-missile defense system A-35 ( ). Work in residue number system. Rate 40 MIPS. Clocking frequency 6 MHz. RAM 10 Mbit. ROM 2,9 Mbit. External memory 3 Gbit. Harvard architecture. Pipelined arithmetic.
Computers in Russia CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 41 Russian supercomputer “Lomonosov” (2009) computing nodes, cores, rate 1,37 pico flops. June 2011 – 13 position on Top500 of the most powerful computers all over the world.
Computers in Russia CENG Spring Dr. Yuriy ALYEKSYEYENKOV 42 Russian microprocessor ELBRUS (ExpLicit Basic Resources Utilization Scheduling) (2010). 64 бита — 4,0 GFLOPS, 32 бита — 8,0 GFLOPS, 4 cores for DSP, 2 processor cores…