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1-1 ECE 424 Design of Microprocessor-Based Systems Haibo Wang ECE Department Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901.

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Presentation on theme: "1-1 ECE 424 Design of Microprocessor-Based Systems Haibo Wang ECE Department Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901."— Presentation transcript:

1 1-1 ECE 424 Design of Microprocessor-Based Systems Haibo Wang ECE Department Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901

2 1-2 Overview  Textbook: J. L. Antonakos, "An Introduction to the Intel Family of Microprocessors," Third Edition, Prentice Hall, 1999  Objectives: The course will provide knowledge to build and program microprocessor-based systems.  Microprocessor architecture  Architecture of microprocessor-based systems  Programming microprocessor-based systems  Future trends  Grading: Two midterms, one final exam, four lab projects, and homework

3 1-3 What are microprocessor-based systems?  Microprocessor-based systems are electrical systems consisting of microprocessors, memories, I/O units, and other peripherals. Memory Output units Input units Bus Microprocessor Control unit Datapath ALU Reg.  Microprocessors access memories and other units through buses  The operations of microprocessors are controlled by instructions stored in memories  Microprocessors are the brains of the systems

4 1-4 What are microprocessors?  A microprocessor is a processor (or Central Processing Unit, CPU) fabricated on a single integrated circuit. X Y Control unit IR PC ALU ACC MAR Data bus Control bus Address bus A simple microprocessor architecture

5 1-5 Evolution of Computers  First generation ( ) - vacuum tube  Second generation ( ) - transistor  Third generation ( ) - IC  Fourth generation (1971-present) - microprocessor

6 1-6 Evolution of Computers  First generation ( ) - vacuum tube IBM 650, 1954

7 1-7 Evolution of Computers  Second generation ( ) - transistor Manchester University Experimental Transistor Computer

8 1-8 Evolution of Computers  Third generation ( ) - IC PDP-8, Digital Equipment Corporation  Thanks to the use of ICs, the DEC PDP-8 is the least expensive general purpose small computer in 1960s

9 1-9 Evolution of Computers  Fourth generation (1971-present) - microprocessor  In 1971, Intel developed 4-bit 4004 chip for calculator applications. ALU Instruction decoder Reg. Program counter I/O Refresh logic System bus Control logic ROM/RAM bufferTimingReset A good review article: The History of The Microprocessor, Bell Labs Technical Journal, Autumn, 1997 Block diagram of Intel chip layout

10 1-10 Evolution of Intel Microprocessors Pentium P II P III P Pentium P IIP III P Pentium P II P III P Pentium P II P III P 4 Number of transistors Minimum transistor sizes (µm) Clock frequencies (MHz)MIPS

11 1-11 Other Commercial Microprocessors  PowerPC ( IBM, Motorola )  Athlon, Dulon, Hammer ( AMD )  Crusoe ( Transmeta )  SPARC, UltraSPARC ( Sun Microsystems )  ARM cores ( Advanced RISC Machines )  MIPS cores ( MIPS Technologies )  TI’s TMS DSP chips ( Texas Instruments )  StarCore ( Motorola, Agere )       

12 1-12 Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems  Computers Block diagram of a computer Memory Timing & control Keyboard Interrupt control... Monitor Micro- processor Disk Other peripherals Bus  System performance is normally the most important design concern

13 1-13 CPU RAMROM Timer Interrupt I/O port USART A/D, D/A OSC. Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems  Microcontrollers Block diagram of a microcontroller  In general, microcontrollers are cheap and have low performance  A microcontroller is a simple computer implemented in a single VLSI chip.  Microcontrollers are widely used in industrial control, automobile and home applications

14 1-14 Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems  ASICs  Microprocessors are embedded into ASIC chips to implement complex functions  In general, it requires that the microprocessors have low power consumption and take small silicon area A TI baseband chip for cellular phone applications

15 1-15 Class Objectives  Hardware architecture of microprocessor-based systems  Programming of microprocessor-based systems  Microprocessor architecture  Memory organization  I/O units of microprocessor-based systems  How to put them together  Intel 80x86 instruction set  Microprocessor Interrupt services  Assembly language programming

16 1-16 Topics 1. Introduction of microprocessor-based systems (Ch. 1) 2. Intel 8088 microprocessor architecture (Ch.2, 10) 3. Memory organization in microprocessor-based systems (Ch. 11) 4. Intel 80x86 instruction set (Ch. 3, 4) 5. Assembly language programming 6. I/O systems (Ch. 12) 7. Microprocessor interrupt and interrupt services (Ch. 5) 9. Disk systems and file (Ch. 9) 10. Topics in advanced computer architecture


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