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EEE226 MICROPROCESSORBY DR. ZAINI ABDUL HALIM School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering USM.

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Presentation on theme: "EEE226 MICROPROCESSORBY DR. ZAINI ABDUL HALIM School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering USM."— Presentation transcript:

1 EEE226 MICROPROCESSORBY DR. ZAINI ABDUL HALIM School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering USM

2 Course Outcomes 1. Understand the architecture of microprocessor system 1. Understand the architecture of microprocessor system 2. Understand the assembly language 2. Understand the assembly language 3. Can program the microprocessor (8085) using assembly language 3. Can program the microprocessor (8085) using assembly language 4. Can interface the microprocessor to external devices such as switch, key pad, ADC, DAC, LCD and PC 4. Can interface the microprocessor to external devices such as switch, key pad, ADC, DAC, LCD and PC 5. Can apply the microprocessor in embedded system 5. Can apply the microprocessor in embedded system

3 Evaluation Scheme 100% Course work 100% Course work 1. hands on test – 15% 1. hands on test – 15% 2. Theoretical Test – 15% 2. Theoretical Test – 15% 3. Lab Report – 10% 3. Lab Report – 10% 4. Project – 60% 4. Project – 60% Lab Report Lab Report Flowchart Flowchart Block diagram Block diagram Program (assembly language) Program (assembly language)

4 Syllabus 1)Introduction-chapter 1 1)Introduction-chapter 1 2) Internal Microprocessor Architecture – chapter 2, chapter 3, chapter 4 2) Internal Microprocessor Architecture – chapter 2, chapter 3, chapter 4 3) Microprocessor Programming-chapter 6 and chapter 7. 3) Microprocessor Programming-chapter 6 and chapter 7. Text Book: Microprocessor Architecture, programming And Application With The Ramesh S. Gaonkar

5 Lab WeekActivityDescription 2Lab 1Introduction to 8085 microprocessor 3Lab 2Introduction to I/O device 4 Lab 3Keypad 5 Hands on test 7 Lab 4ADC and Serial port 8 Lab 5DAC 9 Lab 6Interrupt 10 Hands on test 11ProjectGroup 12ProjectGroup 13ProjectGroup 14Viva Project and theoretical Test Individual

6 Introduction Intel 8085 is an 8 bit microprocessor introduced by Intel in Intel 8085 is an 8 bit microprocessor introduced by Intel in The 8085 follows the von Neumann architecture with a 16 bit address bus and 8 bit data bus. The 8085 follows the von Neumann architecture with a 16 bit address bus and 8 bit data bus. It can access 2 16 (65536) individual 8 bit memory locations (64KB) It can access 2 16 (65536) individual 8 bit memory locations (64KB) Has built in register: Has built in register: A (accumulator), B,C,D,E,H and L (8 bit) A (accumulator), B,C,D,E,H and L (8 bit) Special purpose register: 16 bit program counter, stack pointer, and 8 bit flag register Special purpose register: 16 bit program counter, stack pointer, and 8 bit flag register

7 Von Neumann Architecture Share memory for program and data with one data bus and one address bus between processor and memory. Share memory for program and data with one data bus and one address bus between processor and memory. Instruction and data have to be fetched in sequential order, limiting the operation bandwidth. Instruction and data have to be fetched in sequential order, limiting the operation bandwidth. Its design is simpler than that of architecture. Its design is simpler than that of architecture. It is mostly used to interface to external memory. It is mostly used to interface to external memory.

8 Harvard Architecture Uses physically separate memories for instruction and data, requiring dedicated buses for each of them. Uses physically separate memories for instruction and data, requiring dedicated buses for each of them. Instruction and operands can be fetched simultaneously. Instruction and operands can be fetched simultaneously. Different program and data bus widths are possible, allowing program and data memory to be better optimized to the architectural requirements. Different program and data bus widths are possible, allowing program and data memory to be better optimized to the architectural requirements.

9 Von Neumann architecture vs Harvard architecture

10 Intel 8085

11 8085 microprocessor

12 Has single 5volt power supply Has single 5volt power supply Clock oscillator and system controller were integrated on the chip. Clock oscillator and system controller were integrated on the chip. The CPU included serial I/O port. The CPU included serial I/O port. Multiple version of 8085 microprocessor. Multiple version of 8085 microprocessor.

13 Version of 8085 microprocessor Original version without suffix A is from Intel. Original version without suffix A is from Intel. Then replaced by 8085A, HMOS version and CMOS version. Then replaced by 8085A, HMOS version and CMOS version. Second source manufacturer: AMD, mitsubishi, NEC, OKI, Siemens, Toshiba Second source manufacturer: AMD, mitsubishi, NEC, OKI, Siemens, Toshiba

14 Cont..

15 Introduction μp is a programmable integrated device that has computing and decision making capability, similar to CPU of a computer. μp is a programmable integrated device that has computing and decision making capability, similar to CPU of a computer. Can be: Can be: 1) embedded in a larger system 1) embedded in a larger system 2) a stand alone unit controlling processor 2) a stand alone unit controlling processor μp communicates and operates in the binary number 0 & 1, called bits. μp communicates and operates in the binary number 0 & 1, called bits. Each μp has a fixed set of instructions in the form of binary patterns called machine language. Each μp has a fixed set of instructions in the form of binary patterns called machine language. The binary instructions are given abbreviated names, called mnemonics, form the assembly language. The binary instructions are given abbreviated names, called mnemonics, form the assembly language.

16 Microprocessor A μp is a multipurpose, programmable, clock-driven, register based electronic device that reads binary instructions from a storage device called memory, accepts binary data as input and process data according to those instructions and provides results as output. A μp is a multipurpose, programmable, clock-driven, register based electronic device that reads binary instructions from a storage device called memory, accepts binary data as input and process data according to those instructions and provides results as output.

17 Cont.. A typical programmable machine can be represented with 4 components: A typical programmable machine can be represented with 4 components: Microprocessor Microprocessor Memory Memory Input Input Output Output These 4 components will form a system. These 4 components will form a system. The physical components --> hardware The physical components --> hardware A set of instructions  program A set of instructions  program A group of program is called software A group of program is called software

18 Cont.. The μp applications are clssified primarily in two categories: The μp applications are clssified primarily in two categories: Reprogrammable system (PC) Reprogrammable system (PC) Embedded system (washing machine) Embedded system (washing machine) In embedded system, μp is a part of a final product and is not available for reprogramming to the end user. In embedded system, μp is a part of a final product and is not available for reprogramming to the end user.

19 Binary Digits μp operates in binary digits, 0 & 1, known as bits. μp operates in binary digits, 0 & 1, known as bits. Represented in terms of electrical voltage. Represented in terms of electrical voltage. A group of bits called a word. A group of bits called a word. μp p with an 8 bit word is known as an 8 bit μp. μp p with an 8 bit word is known as an 8 bit μp.

20 μp as a CPU Figure 1.2 Figure 1.2 Figure μp is a primary components of a computer. μp is a primary components of a computer. The computer has 4 components: The computer has 4 components: Memory Memory Input Input Output Output CPU CPU CPU contains various registers to store data, the ALU to perform arithmetic and logical operations, instruction decoders, counter and control lines. CPU contains various registers to store data, the ALU to perform arithmetic and logical operations, instruction decoders, counter and control lines.

21 Arithmetic Logic unit Is the area of microprocessor where various computing functions are performed on data such as addition, subtraction, logic operations (AND, Or and exclusive OR). Is the area of microprocessor where various computing functions are performed on data such as addition, subtraction, logic operations (AND, Or and exclusive OR).

22 Register Array This area of μp identified by letters such as B, C, D, E,H and L. This area of μp identified by letters such as B, C, D, E,H and L. Used to store data temporarily during the execution of a program and are accessible to the user through instructions. Used to store data temporarily during the execution of a program and are accessible to the user through instructions.

23 Control Unit Provides the necessary timong and control signals to all the operations in the microcomputer. Provides the necessary timong and control signals to all the operations in the microcomputer. Control the flow of data between μp and memory and peripheral. Control the flow of data between μp and memory and peripheral.

24 Memory Two types of memory: Two types of memory: ROM (read only memory) ROM (read only memory) RAM ( random access memory) RAM ( random access memory)

25 Input/Output Used to communicate with the outside world. Used to communicate with the outside world. The I/O device is knows as peripherals. The I/O device is knows as peripherals. Input devices: Input devices: Keyboard Keyboard Switches Switches ADC ADC Output devices: Output devices: LED LED DAC DAC LCD LCD

26 System Bus Is a communication path between microprocessor and peripherals. Is a communication path between microprocessor and peripherals. A group of wires to carry bits. A group of wires to carry bits. Three types of bus: Three types of bus: Address bus Address bus Data bus Data bus Control bus Control bus

27 Cont..

28 High Level Language Programming languages that are intended to be machine –independent are called high level language. Programming languages that are intended to be machine –independent are called high level language. Examples: BASIC, PASCAL, C, C++ and Java. Examples: BASIC, PASCAL, C, C++ and Java. Instructions written in these langugaes are called statements rather than mnemonics. Instructions written in these langugaes are called statements rather than mnemonics. Compiler is used to convert the statements to binary languages. Compiler is used to convert the statements to binary languages.

29 Cont.. This translation in the machine language is called object code. This translation in the machine language is called object code. Compiler requires large memory space because the statements requires several machine codes to translate it to binary. Compiler requires large memory space because the statements requires several machine codes to translate it to binary. There is one to one correspondence between the assembly language mnemonics and the machine code. Thus assembly language are compact and use less memory space. There is one to one correspondence between the assembly language mnemonics and the machine code. Thus assembly language are compact and use less memory space. The advantage of high level language is in troubleshooting (debugging) programs. Much easier to find errors in a program, in high level language. The advantage of high level language is in troubleshooting (debugging) programs. Much easier to find errors in a program, in high level language. Application: traffic control-assembly language Application: traffic control-assembly language Application: video games, billing where memory is not a limitation- high level language Application: video games, billing where memory is not a limitation- high level language


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