INTRODUCTION TO ROBOTICS AND MICROCONTROLLERS Instructors: Tijjani “TJ” Mohammed and Tarek Abdel-Salam.

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INTRODUCTION TO ROBOTICS AND MICROCONTROLLERS Instructors: Tijjani “TJ” Mohammed and Tarek Abdel-Salam

Module Overview A general overview of what robots are, and the essential components embedded within A general overview of what robots are, and the essential components embedded within Relevant examples of microcontroller and robot applications to help the participants understand contexts and applications of these technologies Relevant examples of microcontroller and robot applications to help the participants understand contexts and applications of these technologies Contextual understanding makes it easier to relate programming efforts to basic science, math, or engineering concepts Contextual understanding makes it easier to relate programming efforts to basic science, math, or engineering concepts

Student objectives Upon completion of this module students should be able to: Identify and describe key components of microcontrollers and robots Identify and describe key components of microcontrollers and robots List typical applications of microcontrollers List typical applications of microcontrollers Relate number systems and conversions to applications in robotics Relate number systems and conversions to applications in robotics Calibrate the Boe-Bot servos prior to assembly Calibrate the Boe-Bot servos prior to assembly Assemble and test a robot using Parallax Boe-Bot kit Assemble and test a robot using Parallax Boe-Bot kit

Teacher objectives Upon completion of this module instructors should be able to: Prepare a presentation on the fundamentals of microcontrollers and robotics Prepare a presentation on the fundamentals of microcontrollers and robotics Explain to students the basic building blocks of microcontrollers including the CPU, memory, and input/output. Explain to students the basic building blocks of microcontrollers including the CPU, memory, and input/output. Explain number systems and their usefulness in robotics and computing Explain number systems and their usefulness in robotics and computing Walk students through the process of constructing and testing a robot Walk students through the process of constructing and testing a robot

What is a Microcontroller? A microcontroller is a kind of miniature computer that found in all kinds of gizmos A microcontroller is a kind of miniature computer that found in all kinds of gizmos Generally speaking, if a device has buttons and a digital display, chances are it also has a programmable microcontroller brain.

Microcontrollers cont. Microcontrollers are 'single chip' computers specifically designed to: Read input devices, such as buttons and sensors Read input devices, such as buttons and sensors Process data or information Process data or information Control output devices, such as lights, displays, motors and speakers Control output devices, such as lights, displays, motors and speakers

Microcontrollers are placed in devices, or embedded, for operation and control. Microcontrollers are placed in devices, or embedded, for operation and control. Can you name other devices in your life that have embedded control? Can you name other devices in your life that have embedded control? Embedded Control

Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller A microprocessor is the “brain” of a computer system A microprocessor is the “brain” of a computer system Generally referred to as the central processing unit (CPU), the microprocessor by itself is practically useless Generally referred to as the central processing unit (CPU), the microprocessor by itself is practically useless To be useful, one must have means of communicating with it using input and output devices To be useful, one must have means of communicating with it using input and output devices One must also add memory (ROM and RAM) so that the system can be programmed. One must also add memory (ROM and RAM) so that the system can be programmed.

Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller Cont. A microcontroller is a computer chip designed for control-oriented applications A microcontroller is a computer chip designed for control-oriented applications Unlike ordinary microprocessors, microcontrollers have built-in features that make them operate almost independent of additional circuitry Unlike ordinary microprocessors, microcontrollers have built-in features that make them operate almost independent of additional circuitry This is possible because microcontrollers contain things like This is possible because microcontrollers contain things like memory (ROM, EPROM, RAM, etc) memory (ROM, EPROM, RAM, etc) input and output ports input and output ports timers timers serial and parallel communication capability serial and parallel communication capability analog-to-digital converters analog-to-digital converters

The BASIC Stamp 2 embeds a microcontroller, the PIC16C57, on a module to make programming and use very simple, yet very powerful. The BASIC Stamp 2 embeds a microcontroller, the PIC16C57, on a module to make programming and use very simple, yet very powerful. Additional components on the module provide everything needed to systems and applications, like robotics. Additional components on the module provide everything needed to systems and applications, like robotics. Boe-Bot’s Brain: The BASIC Stamp

BASIC Stamp Module Components 5V Regulator Regulates voltage to 5V with a supply of 5.5VDC to 15VDC Resonator Sets the speed at which instructions are processed. EEPROM Stores the your PBASIC program. Interpreter Chip Reads the BASIC program from the EEPROM and executes the instructions. Serial Signal Conditioning Conditions voltage signals between PC serial connection (+/- 12V) and BASIC Stamp (5V) for Programming.

So What is a Robot? A robot is a machine that gathers information about its environment (senses) and uses that information (thinks) to follow instructions to do work (acts) A robot is a machine that gathers information about its environment (senses) and uses that information (thinks) to follow instructions to do work (acts) The “sensing” part provides input to the robot through switches, light sensors, The “sensing” part provides input to the robot through switches, light sensors, The thinking part is the microcontroller brain The thinking part is the microcontroller brain The acting part could be through lights, motors, actuators, sounds, etc The acting part could be through lights, motors, actuators, sounds, etc

Robots and Applications Robots come in many shapes and sizes Robots come in many shapes and sizes 1.Kawada's HRP-3P humanoid robot 2.Fanuc ArcMate 100i precision, high- speed welding and cutting robot 3.MINI-ROBOT RESEARCH — Sandia National Laboratories 4.Mini-robot that can travel through the bloodstream

Ecological Data Collection EME Systems Undersea Research Harbor Branch Institute JP Aerospace Test Launch High-Tech and Aerospace use

Fundamentals of Electricity Electric Current (I), measured in amperes (A) Electric Current (I), measured in amperes (A) Resistance (R), measured in Ohms (Ω) Resistance (R), measured in Ohms (Ω) Voltage (V), measured in volts (V) Voltage (V), measured in volts (V) A complete path or circuit is required for current to flow A complete path or circuit is required for current to flow R V I

Fundamentals of Electricity Cont. Robotics requires a basic understanding of electricity and simple wiring diagrams Robotics requires a basic understanding of electricity and simple wiring diagrams The relationship between current, voltage and resistance is expressed by what is known as Ohm’s Law, variations of which are expressed below: The relationship between current, voltage and resistance is expressed by what is known as Ohm’s Law, variations of which are expressed below: V = IR; I = V/R; R = V/I R V I +V R + -

Module 1 Activities 1.1Installing your robot’s Software (PBASIC) 1.2Identifying key components of the Boe-Bot System 1.3Assembling initial Boe-Bot components 1.4Introduction to breadboarding and circuit construction 1.5Testing for communication between the Boe- Bot and the BASIC stamp editor 1.6Calibrating the servos 1.7Assembling the Boe-Bot

Where We’re Heading… Simple programming to cause Boe-Bot to perform basic tasks Simple programming to cause Boe-Bot to perform basic tasks Adding input and output circuits Adding input and output circuits Making sounds Making sounds Measuring and calculating Measuring and calculating Distances Distances Angles Angles Speed Speed Rotation Rotation

Simple to Complex Timing and signal measurements Timing and signal measurements  Working with equations

Observe, measure, confirm

More Signals Measurements

Graphical illustration of concepts

Analyze different waveforms

Use Accelerometers to Measure Acceleration Acceleration Tilt and tilt angle Tilt and tilt angle Incline Incline Rotation Rotation Vibration Vibration Collision Collision Gravity Gravity

Something for Everyone

STAMP Plot For Data Analyses

Process Control Module for Advanced Concepts Sensing and measurements Sensing and measurements Signal Conditioning Signal Conditioning Data logging Data logging Graphical analyses Graphical analyses Feedback continuous control Feedback continuous control

Resources Parallax Educational Resources Parallax Educational Resources Parallax Educational Resources Parallax Educational Resources http://www.parallax.com/html_pages/edu/index.asp http://www.parallax.com/html_pages/edu/index.asp http://www.parallax.com/html_pages/edu/index.asp What is a Robot? What is a Robot? What is a Robot? What is a Robot?

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