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EEE 4211: Microprocessor and Input/Output System.

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Presentation on theme: "EEE 4211: Microprocessor and Input/Output System."— Presentation transcript:

1 EEE 4211: Microprocessor and Input/Output System

2 MD. RAIHANUS SAADAT Lecturer, Department of EEE AIUB

3 Text Book: Dr. M. Rafiquzzaman, “Microprocessors and Microcomputer-based System Design”

4 Reference Book: 1. Barry B. Brey, “The Intel Microprocessors ” 2. Ytha Yu and Charles Marut, “Assembly Language Programming and Organization of the IBM PC” 3. Douglas V. Hall, “Microprocessors and Interfacing – Programming and Hardware” 4. Albert Paul Malvino, Jerald A. Brown, “Digital Computer Electronics”

5 Distribution of mark Attendance – 20% Attendance – 20% Two late attendances = one absenceTwo late attendances = one absence Class test – 40% Class test – 40% 3 class-tests will be taken3 class-tests will be taken Best two will be countedBest two will be counted No make up class test will be takenNo make up class test will be taken Mid – term – 40% Mid – term – 40%

6 History of Computer 1. Mechanical Age 2. Electrical Age 3. Microprocessor Age

7 The mechanical age: Abacus: The first calculating machine invented by Babylonians in 500 B.C. Geared Machine: Geared machine was used in 17 th century

8 Analytic Engine: In 1937, Charles Babbage, aided by Augusta Ada Byron designed a mechanical computer In 1937, Charles Babbage, aided by Augusta Ada Byron designed a mechanical computer It could store digit decimal numbers It could store digit decimal numbers A variable program could modify the functions of the machine to perform. A variable program could modify the functions of the machine to perform. It required more than 50,000 mechanical parts, which could not be made with enough precision. It required more than 50,000 mechanical parts, which could not be made with enough precision.

9 The Electrical Age: Z3: In 1941 a German Scientist Konrad Zuse invented a mechanical machine driven by electric motor In 1941 a German Scientist Konrad Zuse invented a mechanical machine driven by electric motor This was used in aircraft and missile design in World War II. This was used in aircraft and missile design in World War II.

10 Colosus: The first electronic computer. The first electronic computer. Invented by Alan Turing in Invented by Alan Turing in Non-programmable computer Non-programmable computer It was used to break the secret code of German military. It was used to break the secret code of German military.

11 ENIAC (electronic numerical integrator and calculator): First general purpose programmable electronic computer. First general purpose programmable electronic computer. It contained 17,000 vacuum tubes and 500 miles of wires. It contained 17,000 vacuum tubes and 500 miles of wires. It was invented in 1947 by University of Pennsylvania. It was invented in 1947 by University of Pennsylvania. Instruction execution rate 100,000 IPs Instruction execution rate 100,000 IPs

12 Microprocessor Age Classification of Microprocessor: Microprocessors are classified according to the length of data handled by its ALU at a time Example: 4 – bit, 8 – bit, 16 – bit and 32 – bit microprocessor.

13 4 bit microprocessor 4004: 4 bit microprocessor 4 bit microprocessor Able to address bit wide memory Able to address bit wide memory Instruction set contained only 45 instructions Instruction set contained only 45 instructions It was fabricated using a PMOS technology It was fabricated using a PMOS technology Instruction execution rate was 50 KIPs Instruction execution rate was 50 KIPs

14 4040: Updated version of Updated version of Use: microwave ovens, small control system and calculator. Use: microwave ovens, small control system and calculator.

15 8 bit microprocessor 8008: 8 bit microprocessor, 16 K bytes memory, 48 instructions. 8008: 8 bit microprocessor, 16 K bytes memory, 48 instructions. 8080: 500,000 IPS, 64 K bytes memory, 8080: 500,000 IPS, 64 K bytes memory, 8085: 8085: In 1977, Intel Corporation introduced the last 8 bit microprocessor. In 1977, Intel Corporation introduced the last 8 bit microprocessor. Execution rate 769,230 per second. Execution rate 769,230 per second. Main advantage was internal clock and higher clock frequency. Main advantage was internal clock and higher clock frequency.

16 16 bit microprocessor 8086/8088: 8086/8088: 2.5 MIPs, 1 M byte memory 2.5 MIPs, 1 M byte memory 6 byte instruction cache or queue that prefetch a few instructions before execution 6 byte instruction cache or queue that prefetch a few instructions before execution 80286: 80286: 4 MIPs, 16 M byte memory 4 MIPs, 16 M byte memory Almost identical to Almost identical to 8086.

17 32 bit microprocessor 80386: First 32 bit microprocessor. First 32 bit microprocessor. 32 bit data and 32 bit memory address. 32 bit data and 32 bit memory address. 4 G bytes memory 4 G bytes memory It included hardware circuitry for memory management. It included hardware circuitry for memory management.

18 80486: 8 K byte cache memory 8 K byte cache memory Half cycle instruction execution. Half cycle instruction execution.

19 Pentium: 4 G byte memory, 8 K byte data cache and 8 K byte instruction cache 4 G byte memory, 8 K byte data cache and 8 K byte instruction cache Data bus 64 bit Data bus 64 bit Multimedia execution instructions or MMX Multimedia execution instructions or MMX Dual integer processors Dual integer processors The Pentium simultaneously executes two independent instructions using superscalar technology The Pentium simultaneously executes two independent instructions using superscalar technology Jump prediction technology of Pentium, speeds the execution of programs that include loops. Jump prediction technology of Pentium, speeds the execution of programs that include loops. Floating point processor processes floating point data Floating point processor processes floating point data

20 Pentium Pro: 21 million transistors, 3 integer units, one floating point unit 21 million transistors, 3 integer units, one floating point unit 16 K byte level 1 cache (8 K byte for data and 8 K byte for instructions) and 256 K level 2 caches 16 K byte level 1 cache (8 K byte for data and 8 K byte for instructions) and 256 K level 2 caches 3 execution engines can be configured for 64 G byte memory and it is used with Windows NT operating system for server applications. 3 execution engines can be configured for 64 G byte memory and it is used with Windows NT operating system for server applications.

21 Types of Computers Mainframe Mainframe Super Computer Super Computer Mini Computer Mini Computer Micro Computer Micro Computer

22 Mainframe: The largest and most powerful computer The largest and most powerful computer They are designed to work at very high speed They are designed to work at very high speed Large data words, typically 64 bits or greater Large data words, typically 64 bits or greater They have massive amount of memory They have massive amount of memory Used in military defense control, business data processing, computer graphic display. Used in military defense control, business data processing, computer graphic display. Example: IBM 4381 Example: IBM 4381

23 Super Computer: The fastest and more powerful mainframes are called Super Computer The fastest and more powerful mainframes are called Super Computer Example: Cray Y-MP/ 832 Example: Cray Y-MP/ 832 Used by largest firms, government agencies and universities Used by largest firms, government agencies and universities

24 Mini Computer: Scaled-down versions of mainframe Computer Scaled-down versions of mainframe Computer Runs slowly, works with smaller data word Runs slowly, works with smaller data word Does not have as much memory as mainframe Does not have as much memory as mainframe Used in scientific research and industrial control Used in scientific research and industrial control

25 Micro Computer: Small computer Small computer CPU is usually a single microprocessor CPU is usually a single microprocessor Example: Desk top, Lap top, Pam top Example: Desk top, Lap top, Pam top

26 Microprocessor Data Type: Bit Bit Byte Byte Word Word Unsigned And Signed Binary Integers Unsigned And Signed Binary Integers BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Numbers BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Numbers ASCII ASCII Floating Point Numbers Floating Point Numbers

27 Microprocessor data type Bit: Bit: smallest unit of informationsmallest unit of information It represents either 1 or 0It represents either 1 or 0 Byte: Byte: 8 – bits of data8 – bits of data Word: Word: Data that is handled by a microprocessor at a timeData that is handled by a microprocessor at a time Ex: 8 bit, 16 bit, 32 bit wordEx: 8 bit, 16 bit, 32 bit word

28 Unsigned And Signed Binary Integers An unsigned binary integer has no arithmetic sign An unsigned binary integer has no arithmetic sign Example of unsigned integer is memory address Example of unsigned integer is memory address Signed integer is represented in true form for a positive number and in two’s complement form for a negative number Signed integer is represented in true form for a positive number and in two’s complement form for a negative number

29 BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Numbers Each decimal digit is represented by four bit binary number Each decimal digit is represented by four bit binary number Microprocessor stores BCD numbers in two forms, packed and unpacked Microprocessor stores BCD numbers in two forms, packed and unpacked The unpacked BCD number represents each BCD digit as a byte The unpacked BCD number represents each BCD digit as a byte The packed BCD number represents two BCD digits in a byte The packed BCD number represents two BCD digits in a byte

30 ASCII Each character is represented by an integer. Each character is represented by an integer. This code represents alphanumeric in a microprocessor’s memory This code represents alphanumeric in a microprocessor’s memory It also represents special symbols It also represents special symbols

31 Floating-Point Number Floating point numbers contains three components – sign, exponent and mantissa Floating point numbers contains three components – sign, exponent and mantissa For the decimal value -2.5x10^-2, sign is negative, exponent is -2 and mantissa is 2.5 For the decimal value -2.5x10^-2, sign is negative, exponent is -2 and mantissa is 2.5 A binary floating point number is represented as a normalized binary fraction raised to a power of 2 A binary floating point number is represented as a normalized binary fraction raised to a power of 2

32 Example: Convert decimal number 10 to standard floating point format. 10d = 1010b = (1.010 x 2^3)b 10d = 1010b = (1.010 x 2^3)b Sign S = 0 for positive Sign S = 0 for positive Biasing exponent = 7Fh + 3 = 82h = b Biasing exponent = 7Fh + 3 = 82h = b 23 bit fraction = bit fraction = The floating point equivalent of 10d is The floating point equivalent of 10d is SExponentFraction SExponentFraction

33 Overview of microcomputer structure and operation CPU I/O Ports Memory ROM RAM Input Device Output device Address Bus Data Bus

34 Major Parts: CPU CPU Memory Memory Input / Output circuitry Input / Output circuitry Buses: Buses: Address busAddress bus Data busData bus Control busControl bus

35 Memory: It stores the binary codes for the sequences of instructions It stores the binary codes for the sequences of instructions It stores binary coded data It stores binary coded data Example: ROM, RAM, magnetic / optical disks Example: ROM, RAM, magnetic / optical disks

36 Input / Output: They are used to take in data from outside world or send data to the outside world They are used to take in data from outside world or send data to the outside world I/O devices are connected with microprocessor through I/O ports I/O devices are connected with microprocessor through I/O ports Example: Keyboards, video display terminals, printers, modems Example: Keyboards, video display terminals, printers, modems

37 Central Processing Unit: It controls the operation of computer It controls the operation of computer The CPU fetches binary-coded instructions from memory The CPU fetches binary-coded instructions from memory Decodes the instructions into a series of simple actions Decodes the instructions into a series of simple actions Carries out these actions in a sequence of steps Carries out these actions in a sequence of steps Important components: IP, General purpose register and control bus signal generating circuits Important components: IP, General purpose register and control bus signal generating circuits

38 Floating-Point Number Binary number is converted to a 32 bit floating point format Binary number is converted to a 32 bit floating point format Most significant bit is sign bit which is 0 for positive number and 1 for negative number Most significant bit is sign bit which is 0 for positive number and 1 for negative number The next 8 bits contains the bias exponent i.e. 7Fh or +127d is added to the exponent The next 8 bits contains the bias exponent i.e. 7Fh or +127d is added to the exponent Minimum value of exponent is 0d and maximum value is 255d Minimum value of exponent is 0d and maximum value is 255d Remaining 23 bit represents the fractional part of the number Remaining 23 bit represents the fractional part of the number

39 Address Bus: It consists of 16, 20, 24, 32 or 36 parallel unidirectional signal lines It consists of 16, 20, 24, 32 or 36 parallel unidirectional signal lines On these lines the CPU sends out the address of the memory location or I/O port that is to be written to or read from On these lines the CPU sends out the address of the memory location or I/O port that is to be written to or read from The number of locations that the CPU can address is determined by the number of address lines The number of locations that the CPU can address is determined by the number of address lines

40 Data Bus: Data bus consists of 8, 16, 32 parallel bidirectional signal lines Data bus consists of 8, 16, 32 parallel bidirectional signal lines Many devices in the system will have their output connected to data bus, but only one device at a time will have its output enabled Many devices in the system will have their output connected to data bus, but only one device at a time will have its output enabled

41 Control Bus: The control bus consists of 4 to 10 parallel signal lines The control bus consists of 4 to 10 parallel signal lines The CPU sends out signals on the control bus to enable the outputs of addressed memory devices or port devices The CPU sends out signals on the control bus to enable the outputs of addressed memory devices or port devices Example of control signals: Memory read, Memory write Example of control signals: Memory read, Memory write


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