9 2. Programming 2.1 Data movement instructions 2.2 Arithmetic and logic instructions2.3 Program control instructions
10 program .DATA NUM DB 34H TABLE DW 0012H,0033H,5687H .CODE .STARTUP MOV BX,OFFSET TABLEMOV AX,[BX+4]MOV CX,88HMUL CXCMP AX,2000HJAE NEXTOUT AX,P8.EXITEND
11 Application languages /application program High-level languages/compiler &interpretative programAssembly language/ assembly programKeyboard command and system primitive/ operating systemMachine instruction system/ CPU
29 1.1 A Historical Background A. The Mechanical AgeAbacus (Babylonians)Analytical engine (Babbage, punched cards, 1823,failure)
30 1.1 A Historical Background B. The Electrical AgeMotor-driven adding machines, based on mechanical calculator (Hollerith, set up IBM-International Business Machines Corporation)First electronic calculating machine Z3 (German, Konrad Zuse,1942)The first general-purpose, programmable electronic computer ENIAC (University of Pennsylvania, 1946)
31 ENIACElectronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator [Computer] 电子数字积分计算机
40 The Moore’s Law: the number of transistors integrated in a chip will double very 18 or 24 mouths
41 1.1 A Historical Background D. The Future of MicroprocessorsThe process speed will get more fasterThe memory will get more largeThe bulk will get more smallerThe width of data bus will increaseArchitecture will get more efficient
43 1.2 PC Based on Microprocessor Question: If we use a computer to figure out an arithmetic expression, how can it finish this work?133*33+44*14
44 1.2 PC Based on Microprocessor 133*33+44*14First input these numbers.Do the calculating work.Store The resultOutput the result.Control this processing.
45 1.2 PC Based on Microprocessor 133*33+44*14calculatorInputdeviceOutputdevicememorydata busControl buscontroller
46 1.2 PC Based on Microprocessor AddressbusMicro-processorMemoryData busInterfaceControlbusExternaldevicesBUS definition p25
47 1.2 PC Based on Microprocessor Bus: P25Address bus requests a memory location from the memory or an I/O location from the I/O devices.Data bus transfers information between the microprocessor and its memory and I/O address space.Control bus contains lines that select the memory or I/O and cause them to perform a read or write operation.
50 1.2 PC Based on Microprocessor A. Relationship Figuremicroprocessor ALUcontrollerPC registerinternal memoryI/O interfacePC system I/O Devices & external memorysystem softwareapplication softwarepower、panel、pc frame, etc