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By G. Kiran Kumar Research Scholar, DLISc, University of Mysore, Mysore-06 1.

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Presentation on theme: "By G. Kiran Kumar Research Scholar, DLISc, University of Mysore, Mysore-06 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 By G. Kiran Kumar Research Scholar, DLISc, University of Mysore, Mysore-06 1

2  "Research reports are detailed and accurate accounts of the conduct of disciplined studies accomplished to solve problems or to reveal new knowledge." (Busha and Harter, 1988).  Research reports must be complete, well organized and carefully drafted if their contents are to contribute to fields in which the research efforts are made. This is an essential means of communication to the peers in the field to judge the value of the research work done. 2

3  It serves as a mean for presenting the problem studied, methods and techniques used for collecting and analyzing data, the findings, conclusions and recommendations in an organized manner.  It provides factual base for formulating policies and strategies relating to the subject matter studied.  It serves as a basic reference material for future use in developing research proposals in the same or related area.  It is used to evaluate researchers ability and competence to do research.  It is used for judging the quality of the completed research work/project 3

4 An ideal report should have the following characteristics:  Report should be presented in a systematic and attractive manner.  Titles, photographs and graphs should be used wherever necessary.  Report should be clear, to the point and easily understandable. Proverbs and exaggerations should be avoided.  The analysis of facts should have logical and scientific base so that no one should have the doubt that the report is based on assumption ideas.  Similar types of facts should be repeated 4

5  All the sources of information should be descried so that any person can verify the facts on the basis of described sources.  Difficulties and problems faced during research work should necessarily be described to avoid any artificiality. Such guidelines are very helpful and advantageous for further and future researchers.  An ideal report also indicates the points useful for research in future  Suggestions provided should be unbiased, creative and useful. 5

6  While determining the length, one should keep in view the fact that it should be long enough to cover the subject but short enough to maintain interest. In fact, report should not be means to learning more and more about less and less.  A research report should always sustain readers interest.  Abstract terminology and technical jargon should be avoided in a research report. The report should be able to convey the matter as simply as possible. This, in the other words, means that report should be written in an objective style in simple language, avoiding expressions such as it seems, there may be and the like. 6

7  Readers are often interested in acquiring a quick knowledge of the main findings and as such the report must provide a ready availability of the findings. For this purpose, charts, graphs and the statistical tables may be used for the various results in the main report in addition to the summary of important findings.  The layout of the report should be free from grammatical mistakes and must be prepared strictly in accordance with the techniques of composition of report writing such as the use of quotations, footnotes, documentation, proper punctuations and use of abbreviations in footnotes etc. 7

8  The report must present the logical analysis of the subject matter. It must reflect a structure wherein the different pieces of analysis relating to the research problem fit well.  A research report should show originality and should necessarily be an attempt to solve some intellectual problem. It must contribute to the solution of a problem and must add to the store of knowledge.  Towards the end, the report must also state the policy implications relating to the problem under consideration. It is usually considered desirable if the report makes a forecast of the probable future of the subject concerned and indicates the kinds of research still needs to be done in that particular field. 8

9  Appendices should be enlisted in respect of all the technical data in the report.  Bibliography of sources consulted is a must for a good report and must necessarily be given.  Index is also considered as an essential part of a good report and as such must be prepared and appended at the end.  Report must be attractive in appearance, neat and clean.  Calculated confidence limits must be mentioned and the various constraints experienced in conducting the research study may also be stated in the report. 9

10  There are a variety of research reports. The audience to whom a research report is addressed has to be kept in view in the preparation of a research report. The research report may be divided into following types:  Technical report  Popular reports  Interim reports  Summary report 10

11  Technical report: The technical report is essentially technical in nature and written in technical language. It also contains technical appendix for methodological details, copies of measuring instruments, scale etc.  Popular report: The popular report is for audience like executives/administrators and other non technical users. Complicated statistical techniques and table can be used otherwise using graphical and pictorial representations will be used. 11

12  Interim report: When there is a long time lag between data collection and the presentation of the results. Interim report will be a suitable kind of a report to present data as and when the phase of the project work gets completed. The interim report contains a narration of what has been done so far and what was the outcome. It presents a summary of the findings of that part if analysis which has been completed.  Summary report: A summary report is generally prepared for the consumption of the lay audience. It is written in non-technical, simple language with a liberal use of pictorial charts. It just contains brief reference to the objectives of the study and major findings and their implications. 12

13 After the data analysis is over, report writing cannot be started abruptly. It requires careful pre-planning. The planning process involves the following consolidations and steps:  The target audience ( Public/ Children/ Scientists etc.)  The communication characteristics of the audience ( Level of Knowledge).  The intended purpose of the report ( Award of Degree/Project/Diploma etc.) 13

14  The type and scope of report (M.Phil/ Ph.D/Scope and Limitations)  The style of reporting ( simple/ Clear)  The format of the report ( always varies according to the type of report)  Outline of the contents ( what to cover and what not)  Style of writing  Proper footnotes and bibliography 14

15  A research report has a number of clearly defined sections. While the headings of the sections and the order may vary from one situation to another, the following is suggested as a broad sequence of contents of research report. (i) Preliminary items:  Title Page  Researcher’s declaration  The certificate of the research supervisor. 15

16  Acknowledgements  Table of contents  List of tables  List of graphs and charts  Abstract of Synopsis  Dedication page ( ii) Body of the report: 1. Introduction  Theoretical background of the topic.  Statement of the problem  Review of literature 16

17  The objectives of the study  Hypotheses to be tested.  Definitions of the concepts  Models, if any.  Chapterization 2. The design of the study:  Methodology  Overall typology  Methods of data collection  Source of data  Sample plane  Data collection techniques  Data processing and analysis plan  An overview of the report  Limitations of the study. 17

18 3. Results  Findings  Discussion 4. Summary  Conclusions and Recommendations (iii) Terminal items:  Bibliography  Appendix  Copies of data collection instruments  Technical details on sampling plan  Complex tables  Glossary of new terms used in the report. 18

19 Thank You 19

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