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 Major Themes:  Race  Morality  Internationalism  Organization:  Part I: A Question of Citizenship: The Birth of the Women’s “Suffrage” Movement,

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Presentation on theme: " Major Themes:  Race  Morality  Internationalism  Organization:  Part I: A Question of Citizenship: The Birth of the Women’s “Suffrage” Movement,"— Presentation transcript:

1  Major Themes:  Race  Morality  Internationalism  Organization:  Part I: A Question of Citizenship: The Birth of the Women’s “Suffrage” Movement,  Part II: Becoming a Mainstream Movement: Morality, Religion, and Reunification,  Part III An International Movement: Winning the Vote,  Part IV: Race and the Nineteenth Amendment THE AMERICAN WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE MOVEMENT,

2  14 th Amendment (1868)  Section. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.  Section. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. A QUESTION OF CITIZENSHIP

3  “When women, because they are women, are hunted down through the cities of New York and New Orleans; when they are dragged from their houses and hung upon lamp-posts…when their children are not allowed to enter schools; then they will have urgency to obtain the ballot equal to our own.” THE DEBATE IN THE AMERICAN EQUAL RIGHTS ASSOCIATION 1869

4  “The question of precedence has no place on an equal rights platform. The only reason why it ever found a place here was that there were some who insisted that a woman must stand back & wait until another class should be enfranchised…. If you will not give the whole loaf of justice to the entire people, if you are determined to give it, piece by piece, then give it first to women, to the most intelligent & capable portion of the women at least, because in the present state of government it is intelligence, it is morality which is needed.” SUSAN B. ANTHONY’S RESPONSE

5 National Woman Suffrage Association American Woman Suffrage Association THE DIVIDED WOMEN’S “SUFFRAGE” MOVEMENT

6 Victoria WoodhullVirginia Minor THE NEW DEPARTURE

7 SUSAN B. ANTHONY’S ARRESTARREST

8 BEECHER-TILTON SCANDAL

9 A MAINSTREAM MOVEMENT: MORALITY, RELIGION, AND REUNIFICATION

10 FRANCES WILLARD: “DO EVERYTHING”

11 AFRICAN AMERICAN BRANCHES

12  No more “easy divorce”  Or “persons of notorious immorality” ALICE STONE BLACKWELL ON MERGER

13  “The Bible teaches that woman brought sin and death into the world, that she precipitated the fall of the race…. Marriage for her was to be a condition of bondage, maternity a period of suffering and anguish… Here is the Bible position of woman briefly summed up.”  “I do not believe that any man ever saw or talked with God, I do not believe that God inspired the Mosaic code, or told the historians what they say he did about woman, for all the religions on the face of the earth degrade her, and so long as woman accepts the position that they assign her, her emancipation is impossible.” NAWSA AND THE WOMAN’S BIBLE

14 LYNCHING

15  “The zeal for her race of Miss Ida B. Wells, a bright young colored woman, has, it seems to me, clouded her perception as to who were her friends and well-wishers in all high-minded and legitimate efforts to banish the abomination of lynching and torture from the land of the free and the home of the brave. It is my firm belief that in the statements made by Miss Wells concerning white women having taken the initiative in nameless acts between the races she has put an imputation upon half the white race in this country that is unjust, and, save in the rarest exceptional instances, wholly without foundation. This is the unanimous opinion of the most disinterested and observant leaders of opinion whom I have consulted on the subject, and I do not fear to say that the laudable efforts she is making are greatly handicapped by statements of this kind, nor to urge her as a friend and well-wisher to banish from her vocabulary all such allusions as a source of weakness to the cause she has at heart.”  Resolved, That the National W. C. T. U. which has for years counted among its departments that of peace and arbitration, is utterly opposed to all lawless acts in any and all parts of our common lands and it urges these principles upon the public, praying that the time may speedily come when no human being shall be condemned without due process of law; and when the unspeakable outrages which have so often provoked such lawlessness shall be banished from the world, and childhood, maidenhood and womanhood shall no more be the victims of atrocities worse than death FRANCES WILLARD AND WCTU ON LYNCHING 1894

16  U.S.  Wyoming 1869  Utah-1870 (later disenfranchised, get it back in 1895)  Colorado-1893  Idaho-1896  Washington-1910  California-1911  Oregon, Arizona, Kansas, Michigan  Pacific:  Pitcairn Islands-1838  New Zealand-1893  Australia-1908 AN INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENT

17 WOMEN’S SOCIAL AND POLITICAL UNION WOMEN’S SOCIAL AND POLITICAL UNION GREAT BRITAIN

18 Harriot Stanton Blatch NYC Suffrage Parade, 1912 WOMEN’S POLITICAL UNION

19 Alice PaulLucy Burns FOUNDING THE CU/NWP

20 1913 SUFFRAGE PARADE

21 NWP PICKETS THE WHITE HOUSE

22 Doris Stevens, Alison Turnbull Hopkins, Eunice Dana Brannan Lucy Burns NWP PICKETERS IN PRISON

23 CARRIE CHAPMAN CATT AND NAWSA

24  Netherlands-1919  Sweden-1919  United States-1920  Belgium-1920  Mongolia-1924  United Kingdom-1928  Turkey-1930  South Africa-1930 (white women only)  France-1944 SUFFRAGE SUCCESSES

25 Emma Wold, NWP Mary White Ovington, NAACP RACE AND THE NINETEENTH AMENDMENT

26  Southport N.C.  Oct 10th 1920  The National Woman's Party-  Washington D.C.  To The Sect. of above Party,  I am an american colored woman property owner in Brunswick County State of North Carolina and am seeking way to vote by mail if there is a way, because a colored person in my county is unable to vote, because they are colored. Please send me information how to send votes or register to general Headquarters by mail before it is too late to register.  am oblige.  (Miss) Anna A. Clemons  Letter from Anna A. Clemons to the National Woman's Party, 10 October 1920, National Woman's Party Papers, Library of Congress. ANNA CLEMONS

27 ADELAIDE JOHNSON, MEMORIAL TO THE PIONEERS OF THE WOMAN’S SUFFRAGE MOVEMENT


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