IN CIP OR COGNITIVE INFORMATION PROCESSING: According to Driscoll (2005), learning in CIP occurs when learners encode information to store in long-term memory storage (p. 105). IN SCHEMA THEORY: Learning occurs by “combining background knowledge with information on text” (Zhao & Zhu, 2012, p. 111). IN CIP OR COGNITIVE INFORMATION PROCESSING: According to Driscoll (2005), learning in CIP occurs when learners encode information to store in long-term memory storage (p. 105). IN SCHEMA THEORY: Learning occurs by “combining background knowledge with information on text” (Zhao & Zhu, 2012, p. 111).
Learning occurs when a person “interacts with his or her surroundings (environment) and acquires knowledge through their actions” (Driscoll, 2005, p. 191). Learning “occurs in stages from birth onward starting with reflexes to concrete, abstract objects and eventually reasoning capabilities about hypothetical and social issues” (Driscoll, 2005, p. 196). This means that learning occurs “from sensorimotor, to preoperational, to concrete operational and finally to formal operational periods from birth to childhood” (Driscoll, 2005, p. 196).
Learning occurs in “situated cognition” through “lived practices” (Driscoll, 2005, p. 159). In other words, students who “participate in communities of practice” learn significantly (Driscoll, 2005, p. 159).
In CIP In CIP, the use of imagery and representations are some factors that influence learning, as well as graphic representations and semantic and conceptual maps (Driscoll, 2005, p. 105). In schema theory, In schema theory, factors that influence learning are (a) “prior knowledge, (b) meaningful materials depicting connections between prior knowledge and new information” (Driscoll, 2005, p. 137).
Factors that influence the learner include “concrete and abstract objects; culture and environment, and primitive to cognitive structures” (Driscoll, 2005, p. 194).
Factors that influence learning occur through the learner’s “actions and relations in the world” (Driscoll, 2005, p. 159).Furthermore, “local and familiar conditions” also influence learning (Driscoll, 2005, p. 163).
In CIP, In CIP, memory recalls prior knowledge which assists the learner into organizing and understanding new concepts (Driscoll, 2005, p. 105). ”Practice in attaching multiple cues to what they are learning enable the learners to recall information in different contexts (Driscoll, 2005, p. 105).
The role of memory includes “recalling and organizing prior knowledge in order to provide a framework for future understanding” (Zhao & Zhu, 2012, p. 112).
The role of memory is pertinent through the different stages that a person goes through. Cognitive development starts with “reflexes” and as an individual grows, he or she recalls how to perform basic reflexive actions and eventually has the ability to add to his or her reasoning about hypothetical and social issues during growth (Driscoll, 2005, p. 194).
According to Driscoll, the role of memory in situated cognition is to assist learners to recall “local and familiar conditions” (p. 163) while allowing them to engage in activities and relations that can make new information meaningful (p. 175).
In CIP, In CIP, transfer occurs when the learner acquires information through experiences, enabling the learner to retrieve prior knowledge with encoded new knowledge (Driscoll, 2005, p, 105). In Schema Theory In Schema Theory, transfer occurs when the learner is able to “connect prior knowledge to the newly acquired information (Zhao & Zhu, 2012, p. 113).
As the individual interacts with the environment, he or she performs certain actions, using different skills through stages in life (Driscoll, 2005). Transfer occurs when individuals graduate from one stage to another, performing complex skills and reasoning capabilities (Driscoll, 2005). “Children pass through identifiable stages of mental development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. Learners begin with concrete operations, physically manipulating objects in order to solve specific problems. (Spector, 2001, p. 396).
Transfer occurs through activities wherein learners recall former knowledge and connect this knowledge with activities related to new knowledge (Driscoll, 2005, p. 175).
Web-based learning support CIP theory (Ozcelik & Yildirim, 2005). The “Web has the potential to teach learners by providing opportunities to create well designed, learner-centered, engaging, interactive, affordable, efficient, easily accessible, flexible, meaningful, distributed and facilitated" learning environments (Khan, 2001, p. 5, as cited in Ozcelik & Yildirim, 2005, p. 296).
Green & Farazmand, 2012) Experiential learning such as internships (p. 13) which combines content knowledge and skills development experiences (p. 19).
“Game Pedagogy” is learning through the use of board games (Marjanen, 2010, p. 235). “Game Pedagogy” (Marjanen, 2010) supports Piaget’s theory because a learner learns to manipulate with objects and gains basic skills to complex skills. In addition, board games are typically played in groups wherein learners interact with other individuals in the group. Hence, “peer group learning” also supports this theory because “group members have different levels of skills, knowledge, and understanding Individuals create “friendships, consult with each other, work, and play together (Marjanen, 2010, p. 238).
“Apprenticeship” and other types of hands-on experiences are best explained by this theory (Driscoll, 2005, p. 174). In apprenticeship, a learner learns through activities that connect prior knowledge to new knowledge in a meaningful way (Driscoll, 2005, p. 175). In addition, “reflective activities” also support this theory (Kirshner & Whitson, 1997 as cited in Driscoll, 2005, p. 175). An example of “reflective activity” is journal writing in which the learner recalls prior knowledge and documents this knowledge with the newly-acquired knowledge – hence, creating a meaningful connection between the two sets of knowledge.
CIP Theory: Through technology, learners in this theory are “exposed to messages encoded in media” (Ozcelik & Yildirim, 2005, p. 296). Schema Theory: Higher education uses technology by encouraging students to participate in blogs and discussion boards wherein learners and their peers recall their prior knowledge and reflect this knowledge with their current lessons.
In Piaget’s Cognitive Theory: Instructional designers can design game-based lessons wherein individuals can go from one level to another as they increase their knowledge and reasoning skills. It is also important for online students to have group collaborations through discussion boards and blogs. Digital badges can be utilized with this theory. As learners go from one level or skill expertise to another, they gain badges that represent their progress in the class.
In Situated Cognition: Technology supports this theory by providing “carefully guided instructional strategies for effective problem-solving skills in all areas of the curriculum” (Bieniek, 2008, p. 22). This can be achieved through “socially mediated constructions rather than mental presentations (McGuiness, 1993 as cited in Bieniek, 2008, p. 23). Hence, students can “utilize social media for collaboration” (Bieniek, 2008, p. 25). In addition, “feedback or comments” are also beneficial (Bieniek, 2008, p. 25). Educational technology can also generate “context, content, facilitation, and assessments” through web-based platforms (Bieniek, 2008, p. 28).
Bieniek, V. Y. (2008). Implementation of a cognitive apprenticeship model on student programming and perception of problem-solving ability: An exploratory study. Capella University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 159. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304833465?accountid=14872. (304833465). Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.).Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Green, R. D., & Farazmand, F. A. (2012). Experiential learning: The internship and live-case study relationship. Business Education & Accreditation, 4 (1), 13-23. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1268715076?accountid=14872 Marjanen, P. (2010). Serious game pedagogy as a perspective on children's learning. Paper presented at the 235-XI. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/869507905?accountid=14872 Ozcelik, E., & Yildirim, S. (2005). Factors influencing the use of cognitive tools in web-based learning environments: A case study. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 6 (4), 295-307. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/231071306?accountid=14872 Spector, J. (2001). Philosophical implications for the design of instruction. Instructional Science, 29 (4/5), 381-402. Zhao, X., & Zhu, L. (2012). Schema theory and college english reading teaching. English Language Teaching, 5 (11), 111-117. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1081337734?accountid=14872
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