Presentation on theme: "1 10 Module 10B: The Windows Internet Name Service."— Presentation transcript:
1 10 Module 10B: The Windows Internet Name Service
2 10 Overview Describe the function of WINS. Explain how a WINS server resolves NetBIOS names. Install and configure a WINS server for an internetwork. Configure a computer to use primary and secondary WINS servers. Backup and restore the WINS database. Use the JETPACK utility to compact the WINS database. Configure WINS to automatically remove obsolete database entries. Configure a WINS server to replicate its database entries with another WINS server.
3 10 Objectives After completing this module, you will be able to: Describe the function of WINS. Explain how a WINS server resolves NetBIOS names. Configure a client to use primary and secondary WINS servers. Install and configure a WINS server for an internetwork.
4 10 What Is WINS? WINS Server What Is the IP Address for \\STUDENT3? What Is the IP Address for \\STUDENT3? \\STUDENT3 =
5 10 The Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is an enhanced NetBIOS Name Server (NBNS) designed by Microsoft to eliminate broadcast traffic associated with the b-node implementation of NetBIOS over TCP/IP. It is used to register NetBIOS names and resolve them to IP addresses for both local and remote hosts. Before two NetBIOS-based hosts can communicate, the destination NetBIOS name must be resolved to an IP address. This is necessary because TCP/IP requires an IP address to communicate. It cannot establish communication using a NetBIOS computer name. The procedure is as follows:
6 10 What is WINS?
In a WINS environment, each time a WINS client starts, it registers its NetBIOS names and its IP address with a WINS server. 2. When a WINS client initiates a Windows NT command to communicate with another NetBIOS name (such as the NET USE command), the NetBIOS name query request is sent directly to the WINS server instead of broadcasting it on the local network. 3. If the WINS server finds an IP address associated with the requested NetBIOS name in its database, it returns the IP address to the WINS client. Because the WINS database obtains NetBIOS name/IP address mappings dynamically, it is always current.
8 10 Why Use WINS? Request Are Sent Directly to WINS Server Reduces broadcast traffic The WINS Database Is Updated Dynamically No LMHOSTS file is necessary Provides the Ability to Browse: WAN resources Interdomain resources
9 10 Why Use WINS? WINS provides the following advantages: Client requests for name resolution are sent directly to a WINS server. If the WINS server can resolve the name, it sends the IP address directly to the client. As a result, a broadcast is not needed, and network traffic is reduced. However, if the WINS server is unavailable, the WINS client can still use a b-node broadcast in an attempt to resolve the name. The WINS database is updated dynamically, so it is always current. This eliminates the need for an LMHOSTS file to be maintained at any TCP/IP host that uses WINS. WINS provides internetwork and inter-domain browsing capabilities without configuring and maintaining an LMHOSTS file at each computer. How WINS aids in internetwork browsing and domain logon functions is discussed in Module 9, Internetwork Browsing.
10 How WINS Works? WINS is an extension of RFC 1001 and RFC WINS uses standard methods of name registration, name discovery, and name release. The method used to renew a name registration is unique to WINS clients.
11 10 How WINS Works
12 10 Name Registration Each WINS client is configured with the IP address of a primary WINS server and optionally, a secondary WINS server. When a client starts, it registers its IP address and NetBIOS names with the primary WINS server. The secondary WINS server is only used if the primary WINS server is unavailable. The WINS server stores the client's IP address and NetBIOS names as multiple records, one record for each NetBIOS name of the WINS client, in its database.
13 10 Name Renewal All NetBIOS names are registered on a temporary basis so the same name can be used later by a different host if the original owner stops using it or does not renew the registration.
14 10 Name Release Each WINS client is responsible for maintaining its registered NetBIOS names. When the NetBIOS name will no longer be used because the NetBIOS application or service is not running the WINS client sends a message to the WINS server to release it. For example, when the computer is shut down the WINS client releases all registered NetBIOS names.
15 10 Name Query and Name Resolution If all WINS clients have registered their IP address and NetBIOS names with a WINS server, any WINS client can resolve the IP address of any other NetBIOS name by querying the WINS server. A typical use is to resolve a NetBIOS name corresponding to a computer name (SERVERNAME ) during a NET USE operation. All WINS communications are done over UDP Port 137, the NetBIOS Name Service. Each communication is directed to and from the WINS client and WINS server and is not broadcast traffic. If configured properly, the need for broadcasts to resolve NetBIOS names to IP addresses should be minimal.
16 10 Name Registration When a WINS client initializes, it registers its NetBIOS names by sending a series of name registration requests directly to the configured WINS server. NetBIOS names are registered when services or applications start, such as the Redirector, Server, and Messenger. If the WINS server is available and the name is not already registered by another WINS client, a successful registration message is returned to the client. This message contains the amount of time the NetBIOS name is registered to the client, specified as the Time To Live (TTL).
17 10 Name Registration
18 10 When a Duplicate Name Is Found If there is a duplicate name registered in the WINS database, the WINS server sends a challenge to the currently registered owner of the name. The challenge is sent as a name query request. The WINS server sends the challenge three times in 500 milliseconds intervals. If the registered computer is a multihomed computer, the WINS server tries each IP address it has for the computer until it receives a response or until all of the IP addresses have been tried. If the current owner of the registered name responds successfully to the WINS server, the WINS server sends a negative name registration response to the WINS client that is attempting to register the name.
19 10 When the WINS Server Is Unavailable A WINS client will make three attempts to find the primary WINS server. If it fails after the third attempt, the name registration request is sent to the secondary WINS server (if configured). The WINS client will make three attempts to find the secondary WINS server. If neither server is available, the WINS client will initiate a b-node broadcast to register its name. Note: LAN Manager 2.2c for MS-DOS and Microsoft Network Client 3.0 clients do not register NetBIOS names with WINS, although they use WINS for name resolution.
20 10 Name Renewal To continue using the same NetBIOS name, a client must renew its registration before its Time To Live expires. If a client does not renew the registration, the WINS server removes it from its database, effectively making that NetBIOS name available for another WINS client.
21 10 Name Renewal
22 10 Name Refresh Request Here is a step by step description of WINS name renewals. On the initial name refresh: 1. A WINS client first attempts to refresh its name registrations after one eighth of the TTL has expired. If the WINS client does not receive a Name Refresh Response, it will keep attempting to refresh its registrations every two minutes, until half of the TTL has expired. 2. When 1/2 of the TTL for a registered NetBIOS name has expired, the WINS client attempts to renew the name with the primary WINS server. 3. If this succeeds the TTL expiration timer is reset to 1/2 of the TTL specified in the refresh acknowledgment from the WINS server. 4. If the name refresh fails at 1/2 of the TTL, the client changes its refresh interval to 1/8 of the TTL until its names are refreshed (the next attempt for refresh is 1/2 +1/8 or 5/8 of the total TTL). Note that the WINS client verifies that 1/8 TTL is least 10 minutes or longer to avoid excessive network traffic. 5. If the WINS client does not reach the WINS server by 3/4 of the TTL, it starts trying to contact the secondary WINS server as well as the primary WINS server. This will continue indefinitely until a WINS server is contacted. For subsequent name refreshes, the WINS client starts at Step 2 above.
23 10 Name Refresh Response When a WINS server receives the name refresh request, it sends the client a name refresh response with a new TTL.
24 10 Name Release
25 10 Name Release Request When a WINS client is properly shut down, it sends a name release request directly to the WINS server for each registered name. The name release request includes the client's IP address and the NetBIOS name to be removed from the WINS database.
26 10 Name Release Response When the WINS server receives the name release request, it checks its database for the specified name. If the WINS server encounters a database error, or if a different IP address maps the registered name, it sends a negative name release to the WINS client. Otherwise, the WINS server sends a positive name release and then designates the specified name as inactive in its database. The name release response contains the released NetBIOS name and a TTL value of zero. WINS clients assume the name release response is positive, and stop responding to the name requests from other hosts for the name. If it does not receive a response, the WINS client resends the name release request (up to three times). Receiving a negative release response or no response at all does not stop the client from shutting down.
27 10 Name Query and Name Response
28 10 By default WINS clients uses the h-node implementation of NetBIOS over TCP/IP. The NetBIOS Name Server is always checked for a NetBIOS name/IP address mapping before initiating a b-node broadcast. The process is as follows:
When a user initiates a Windows NT command, such as NET USE, the NetBIOS name cache is checked for the NetBIOS name/IP address mapping of the NetBIOS name.
If the name is not resolved from cache, a name query request is sent directly to the client's primary WINS server. If the primary WINS server is unavailable, the client resends the request two more times before switching to the secondary WINS server. When either WINS server resolves the name, a success message with the IP address for the requested NetBIOS name is sent to the source host.
If neither WINS server can resolve the name, a name query response is sent back to the WINS client with the message "Requested name does not exist", and b- node name resolution is implemented. Note that the WINS client does not check the secondary WINS sever if the primary WINS server returns a "Requested name does not exist" message. The secondary WINS server is only checked if the primary WINS server is unavailable. If the name is not resolved from cache, by a WINS server, or b-node broadcast, the name may still be resolved by parsing the LMHOSTS or HOSTS files, or by using a DNS.
32 10 Note: When a WINS client requests the IP address for a multihomed computer, the WINS server will send a response listing all of the IP addresses for the multihomed computer. The list is ordered by the order in which the IP addresses were registered/refreshed with WINS (most recent to least recent). MS-DOS TCP/IP clients will only use the first address in the list returned to it. WFW and Windows NT clients select an address based on the following priorities: 1) the IP address is on the same subnet 2) the IP address is on the same network 3) if neither of the above, the client randomly select an address from the list.
33 10 Implementation Considerations Before you implement WINS in an internetwork, consider the following:
34 10 The number of WINS servers on an internetwork. Only one WINS server is required for an internetwork, because requests for name resolution are directed datagrams that can be routed. Two WINS servers ensure a backup system for fault tolerance. If one server becomes unavailable, the second server can be used to resolve names.
35 10 WINS Server Recommendations. There is no built-in limit to the number of WINS requests that can be handled by a WINS server, but typically it can handle 1500 name registrations and about 750 name queries per minute. A conservative recommendation is one WINS server and a backup server for every 10,000 WINS clients. Computers with multiple processors have demonstrated performance improvements of approximately 25 percent for each processor, as a separate WINS thread is started for each processor. If logging is turned off (through WINS Manager), name registrations are much faster, but if a crash occurs, there is a risk of losing the last few updates.
36 10 WINS Requirements To implement WINS, both the server and client require configuration.
37 10 Server Requirements A WINS server requires: The WINS Server service configured on at least one computer within the TCP/IP internetwork running Windows NT Server 3.5 and above (it does not have to be a domain controller). A static IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and other TCP/IP parameters. These parameters must be manually entered and cannot be assigned as a client reservation by DHCP. This is necessary because if the computer is configured to use DHCP and the DHCP server is not immediately available, WINS will fail to load since the computer will not have an IP address. The first TCP/IP binding under the Bindings button in Control Panel Networks must have an IP address (i.e. it can not be a RAS binding). This is required because WINS binds to the first entry under the TCP/IP bindings.
38 10 Client Requirements A WINS client requires: A computer running any of the following supported operating systems: Windows NT Server 3.5 and above Windows NT Workstation 3.5 and above Windows™ for Workgroups 3.11 running Microsoft TCP/IP-32 (provided on the Windows NT Server 3.5 and above CD) Windows 95 with TCP/IP protocol Microsoft Network Client 3.0 for MS-DOS with the real mode TCP/IP driver included on the Windows NT Server 3.5 and above CD LAN Manager 2.2c for MS-DOS included on the Windows NT Server 3.5 and above CD. LAN Manager 2.2c for OS/2 is not supported. An IP address of a WINS server configured, for a primary WINS server, or for primary and secondary WINS servers.
39 10 WINS Client Platforms WINS Server Windows NT Workstation Microsoft Network Client or LAN Manager 2.2c Windows for Workgroups 3.11 Windows 95
40 10 Configuring a Client to Use WINS Configuring a computer to be a WINS client requires that you add the IP address of a primary WINS server, and optionally, the IP address of a secondary WINS server.
41 10 Windows NT Clients The following steps assume that the TCP/IP transport is already installed. 1. Use the Control Panel Network application to access the Network Settings dialog box. 2. In the list of installed Network Software, select TCP/IP Protocol, and then choose Configure. 3. In the TCP/IP Configuration dialog box, type the IP address of a primary WINS Server and secondary WINS Server (if applicable), and then choose OK. 4. Exit the Network application, and then shut down and restart the computer.
42 10 Windows 9x Clients The following steps assume that the TCP/IP transport is already installed. 1. From Control Panel Network, bring up the properties of the TCP/IP protocol. 2. From the WINS Configuration property page, select "Enable WINS Resolution" and enter the IP addresses of the primary and secondary WINS servers. If you want the DHCP server to allocate WINS server configuration information, select "Use DHCP for WINS Resolution". 3. Click OK and then shut down and restart the computer.
43 10 Configuring a WINS Client Using DHCP If the computer is a DHCP client, WINS support can be configured by adding and configuring two DHCP Scope options: 044 WINS/NBNS Servers - Configure the address of primary and secondary servers. 046 WINS/NBT Node - Configure to 0x8 (H-node). When the DHCP client leases or renews an address lease, it will receive these two DHCP Scope options, and the client will be configured for WINS support. Note: The IP addresses that you configure in the Primary WINS Server and Secondary WINS Server boxes take precedence over the same parameters configured using DHCP.
44 10 Maintaining the WINS Server Database
45 10 WINS Manager provides the ability to view the contents of the WINS database and search for specific entries.
46 10 To open the WINS database: 1. Start WINS Manager. 2. From the Mappings menu, choose Show Database. The Show Mappings dialog box appears. By default, all mappings for the current WINS server appear. 3. To view mappings for a specific WINS server, select Show Only Mappings from Selected Owner, and then from the Select Owner list, select the WINS server you want to view. 4. Select a Sort Order option to sort by IP address, computer name, timestamp for the mapping, version ID, or type. Under Sort Order, select how you want mappings sorted. 5. If you want to view only a range of mappings, choose the Set Filter button, and then specify the IP addresses or NetBIOS names. 6. View the mappings in the Mappings box. Each mapping includes the following elements:
47 10 ElementDescription Single Computer Icon Indicates that the entry is unique name. Multiple Computer Icon Represents a group, internet group, or multihomed computer. Name The registered NetBIOS name. IP address The IP address that corresponds to the registered name. A or S Indicates whether the mapping is active (dynamic) or static. If there is a cross symbol in the A column, it indicates that the name is no longer active and will soon be removed from the database. Expiration Date Shows when the entry will expire. When a replica is stored in the database, its expiration data is set to the current time on the receiving WINS server, plus the renewal interval. Version ID A unique hexadecimal number assigned by the WINS server during name registration, which is used by the server's pull partner during replication to find new records.
To delete a WINS server and all database entries owned by that server, select a WINS server in the Select Owner list, and then choose the Delete Owner button. 8. When finished, choose the Close button.
49 10 Common NetBIOS Names Viewing the registered names can be helpful in determining which services are running on a computer. The following table describes common NetBIOS names that you will see in the WINS database.
50 10 Registered name Description \\computer_name[00h] The name registered for the Workstation service on the WINS client. \\computer_name[03h] The name registered for the Messenger service on the WINS client. \\computer_name[20h] The name registered for the Server service on the WINS client. \\username[03h] The name of the user currently logged on to the computer. The username is registered by the Messenger service so that the user can receive NET SEND commands sent to their username. If more than one user is logged on with the same username (such as Administrator), only the first computer from which a user logged on will register the name. \\domain_name[1Bh] The domain name registered by the Windows NT™ Server primary domain controller (PDC) that is functioning as the Domain Master Browser. This names is used for remote domain browsing. When a WINS server is queried for this name, it returns the IP address of the computer that registered this name.
51 10 Note: The value in the brackets [ ] after each name registered in the WINS database is always the 16th byte of the name that was registered, as specified by the LAN Manager naming convention.
52 10 Backing Up and Restoring the WINS Database Backing Up the WINS Database It is important to back up the WINS database in the event of system failure or database corruption.
53 10 Specifying a Backup Directory The WINS database is backed up every 24 hours after you specify the backup directory. To specify the backup directory: 1. From the WINS Manager Mappings menu, choose Backup Database. The Select Backup Directory dialog box appears. 2. Specify the location for saving backup files. 3. If you want to back up only the changes that have occurred since the last backup, select Perform Incremental Backup. You must have already performed a complete backup before you can perform an incremental backup. 4. Choose OK.
54 10 Backing up the WINS Registry Key You should also periodically back up the Registry entries for the WINS server. To backup the WINS Registry entries: 1. Use the Registry Editor to open HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\ Services\WINS 2. From the Registry menu, choose Save Key. 3. In the Save Key dialog box, specify the path where you store backup versions of the WINS database file.
55 10 Restoring a Corrupt WINS Database In the event that the WINS database becomes corrupt, use one of the following three methods to restore the backup database: Stop and restart the WINS Server service. If the WINS Server service detects a corrupt database, it automatically restores a backup copy. From the WINS Manager Mappings menu, choose Restore Database. You will be required to specify the directory where the backup copy is located. Manually delete and restore the database files using the following steps: a.From the \systemroot\SYSTEM32\WINS directory, delete the JET*.LOG, WINSTMP.MDB and SYSTEM.MDB files. b.Copy the SYSTEM.MDB from the Windows NT Server CD to the \systemroot\SYSTEM32\WINS directory. c.Copy an uncorrupted backup version of the WINS.MDB database file to \systemroot\SYSTEM32\WINS directory.
56 10 The WINS Database Files The following files are stored in the \systemroot\SYSTEM32\WINS directory: FileDescription WINS.MDB The WINS database file. WINSTMP.MDB A temporary file that WINS creates. This file may remain in the \WINS directory after a crash. JET.LOG A log of all transactions done with the database. This file is used by WINS to recover data if necessary. SYSTEM.MDB The database structure file. Caution: Do not tamper with or remove these files, except to manually restore a corrupted WINS database.
57 10 Compacting the WINS Database It is recommended that the WINS database is compacted if it grows to over 30 MB in size. The amount of space used for each entry in the WINS database depends on the type of registration, for example: A unique or group entry uses 50 to 70 bytes. An internet group or multihomed entry uses 50 to 300 bytes, depending on the number of members/IP addresses. There is between 50 and 100 bytes of database overhead per record in the WINS database.
58 10 The JETPACK utility is used to compact the WINS database.To compact the database: 1. Stop the WINS server service. This can be done from Control Panel Services, Server Manager, or a command prompt. To stop the service from a command prompt, use the following command syntax: net stop wins 2. From the \systemroot\SYSTEM32\WINS directory, run the JETPACK using the following command syntax (assign any filename to temporary_name): jetpack wins.mdb temporary_name.mdb The contents of WINS.MDB are compacted in temporary_name, and then the temporary file is copied to WINS.MDB, and the temporary name is deleted. 3. Restart the WINS Service from Control Panel Services, Server Manager, or a command prompt, To restart the service from a command prompt, use the following command syntax: net start wins
59 10 Configuring Automatic Database Cleanup Each WINS database should be periodically cleared of entries that were released and entries that were registered at another WINS server but were never removed. This process can be done manually by the WINS administrator or be automatically done at configured intervals
60 10 NetBIOS names go through different phases before they are removed from the database. To configure the length of time a NetBIOS name is in each phase: 1. From the WINS Manager Server menu, choose Configuration. The WINS Server Configuration dialog box appears. 2. To view all the options in the dialog box, choose Advanced. 3. Under WINS server configuration, specify the intervals for each option as described in the following table.
61 10 IntervalDescription Renewal Interval The frequency a WINS client will renew its name registration with the WINS server. The default value is 96 hours. Extinction Interval The interval between when an entry in the WINS database is marked as released (no longer registered) and when it is marked as extinct. The default value is 96 hours. Extinction Timeout The interval between when an entry is marked extinct and when the entry is scavenged (removed) from the WINS database. The default is the same as the renewal interval, and cannot be less than 24 hours. Verify Interval The time after which the WINS server will verify that names it does not own (those replicated from other WINS servers) are still active by contacting the originating server via RPC. The default value is 576 hours (24 days). This is the minimum value that WINS Manager will save.
62 10 Configuring Automatic Database Cleanup
If you want this WINS server to pull replicas of new WINS database entries from its partners when the computer initializes or when replication-related parameter changes, select initial replication under Pull Parameters. 5. To inform partners of the database status when the computer is initialized, select Initial Replication under Push Parameters. 6. Under Advanced WINS Server Configuration, select any of the following options.
64 10 Advanced option Description Logging Enabled Specifies whether logging of database changes should be turned on. Log Detailed Events Specified whether logging events is verbose. If you are tuning for performance, this should be turned off. Replicate Only With Partners Specifies that replication will be done only with WINS pull or push partners, and not with a non-listed WINS server partner. This is selected by default. Backup On Termination Specifies that the database will be backed up automatically when WINS Manager is closed. Migrate On/Off Specifies that static unique and multihomed entries are treated as dynamic when they conflict with a new registration or replica. This means that if they are no longer valid, they will be overwritten by the new registration or replica. Check this option if you are upgrading non-Windows NT computers to Windows NT. Starting Version Count Specifies the highest version ID number for the database. Usually, you will not need to change this value unless the database becomes corrupted and needs to start fresh. Database Backup Path Specifies the directory where the WINS database backup will be stored. This directory is also used for automatic restoration of the database. Do not specify a network directory.
When finished, choose OK
66 10 Database Replication Between WINS Servers
67 10 All of the WINS servers on a given network can be configured to communicate with each other so that a name registered with one WINS server will eventually be known by all WINS servers. In addition to being aware of all name registrations on the network, all of the WINS servers will also be notified when a name is released. Having all of the WINS servers communicate with each other in this manner is done by configuring the WINS servers to replicate their WINS database entries with each other.
68 10 Configuring WINS servers to replicate their WINS database entries with each other extends the benefit of WINS across the entire network. For example, WINS clients on network 1 register their computer name with WINS Server1 and WINS clients on network 2 register their computer name with WINS Server2. When WINS clients on network 1 need to resolve a computer name to IP address, they contact WINS Server1. Because WINS Server1 and WINS Server2 replicate their WINS Database entries with each other, WINS Server1 can resolve a NetBIOS name to its IP address from network 2. If WINS Server1 and WINS Server2 did not replicate their WINS database entries with each other, WINS Server1 would not be able to resolve a NetBIOS name to its IP address from network 2.
69 10 Push and Pull Partners
70 10 To configure WINS servers to replicate their WINS database entries amongst each other requires each WINS server to be configured as a 'Pull' or 'Push' partner with at least one other WINS server:
71 10 Pull Partners A Pull partner is a WINS server that 'pulls' WINS database entries (also known as replicas) from its Push partners. This is done by requesting any new WINS database entries that the Push partners have. The Pull partner requests the new WINS database entries by requesting entries with a higher version number than the last entry it received during the last replication.
72 10 Push Partners A Push partner is a WINS server that sends a message to its Pull partners notifying them when its WINS database has changed. When the WINS server's Pull partner(s) respond to the message with a replication request, the WINS server sends a copy ('pushes') of its new WINS database entries (replicas) to its Pull partner(s).
73 10 While there are separate designations of pull and push partners during the configuration of WINS replication, it is generally assumed that two WINS servers want to exchange information both ways. In this case, both WINS servers will be both push and pull partners with each other. In the example above, if Sydney and Seattle want to exchange two-way NetBIOS name mappings, Sydney is configured as a push and pull partner with Seattle and Seattle is configured as a push and pull partner with Sydney.
74 10 Push and Pull Operations
75 10 The initiation of information being exchanged between two WINS servers can either happen through a push or pull operation. For simplicity, the above drawing only shows database entries flowing one way.
76 10 Push Operation In a push operation, a WINS server notifies its pull partners that it has new entries which it wishes to send. The WINS server sends out a directed "Have new entries" notification to all pull partners. This notification is received by the pull partners who then send a "Send new entries" notification to the push partner from which it received the "Have new entries" notification. The originating WINS server then sends the new entries. To initiate a push operation, a push trigger is configured. A push trigger is based on a threshold of a certain number of entries that have changed regardless of the time. Push triggers are configured during the configuration of WINS replication. Using the example above, Sydney is configured with a push trigger of 1000 entries. When 1000 entries in the Sydney WINS database have changed, it initiates a push operation with Seattle.
77 10 Pull Operation In a pull operation, pull partners send a "Send new entries" notification to their push partners. The push partners then sends all the new entries to the pull partners from which they received a "Send new entries" notification. To initiate a pull operation, a pull trigger is configured. A pull trigger is based on scheduled times regardless of the amount of entries to be sent. Pull triggers are configured during the configuration of WINS replication. Using the example above, Seattle is configured with a pull trigger of every day at 12:00 AM. At 12:00 AM each day, Seattle initiates a pull operation with Sydney. Note that in both cases, push and pull operations, the data flows from push partner to pull partner. The actual replicated entries are always pushed from the push partner down to the pull partner. The main difference between push and pull operations is the nature of the trigger (number of changed entries vs. scheduled) and who initiates the first notification.
78 10 WINS Database Replication Considerations
79 10 Some general rules to keep in mind when configuring WINS server replication are: Use a pull operation between sites, especially across slower links, since pull triggers can be configured to occur at specific times when the slow link is less busy. Use a push operation between servers within a site that are connected by faster links, since push triggers are based on the number of changes entries and can be more frequent.
80 10 These rules are applied in the above example: In both Sydney and Seattle, all of the WINS servers at each site implement push triggers to push their new WINS database entries to a single server at their site. The WINS servers in Sydney and Seattle that receive all of the push replication are configured with a pull trigger for pull replication between each other. This is done because the network link between Sydney and Seattle is relatively slow. Therefore, the network administrators only want the replication to occur at times when the link is the least used, such as late at night. When replication occurs between the two WINS servers in Sydney and Seattle, the servers then push the WINS database entries they receive to the local WINS servers using a push operation.
81 10 Configuring Database Replication
82 10 There are four methods of starting the replication of the WINS database: At system startup. Once a replication partner is configured, WINS automatically pulls each time the WINS Server service is started. At a configured interval, such as every five hours (pull trigger). When a WINS server has reached a configured threshold for the number of registrations and changes to the WINS database (push trigger). When the threshold (the update count setting) is reached, the WINS server notifies all of its pull partners who will then request the new entries. By forcing replication through WINS Manager Replication Partners dialog box (manual override of push or pull trigger).
83 10 To add a replication partner for a WINS server: 1. From WINS Manager window, choose Replication Partners from the Server menu. The Replication Partners dialog box appears. 2. Choose Add. The Add WINS Server dialog box appears. 3. In the Add WINS Server dialog box, type the name or IP address of the WINS server you want to add, and then choose OK. If WINS Manager can find this server, it will add it to the WINS server list in the Replication Partners dialog box. 4. From the Windows Server list, select the server you want to configure. 5. Under Windows Server To List, select either Push Partner or Pull Partner or both to indicate the replication partnership you when, and then choose the related Configure button. Either the Push Partner Properties or Pull Partner Properties dialog box appears, depending on your selection.
For a push partner, type a number in the Update Count box for how many new database entries that the WINS server must reach before it will send a push message, and then choose OK. An appropriate update count should be based on the number of registrations a server handles. A WINS server that receives hundreds of name registrations when users first log on should not be configured to replicate a small number of registrations. The minimum value is For a pull partner, type a start time and replication interval for the selected partner, and then choose OK. 8. Under Send Replication Trigger Now, select Push or Pull to send messages to only the selected WINS servers (whereas the Replicate Now button will initiate replication with all partners). 9. Select the Push With Propagation check box. This causes the selected WINS servers to obtain any new database entries from the WINS server that sent the message. If the selected WINS servers received any new entries, they will propagate the push message to all their pull partners. If the selected WINS servers did not receive any new entries, they will not propagate the push message. 10. When finished, choose OK.
85 10 Automatic WINS Replication Partner Windows NT 3.51 WINS servers can be configured through the Registry so that they automatically configure themselves for replication. If so configured, the WINS servers periodically, every 40 minutes by default, announce their presence through an IP multicast packet. These WINS servers also listen for these announcements and add the IP addresses of new WINS servers detected as both push and pull partners with pull replication occurring every 2 hours.
86 10 To configure a WINS server so that it will automatically configure itself for replication, the following Registry entries must be added under: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \SYSTEM \CurrentControlSet \Services \Wins \Parameters
87 10 UseSelfFndPnrs This parameter must have a type of REG_DWORD and should be set to either 0, disabled, or 1, enabled. If this parameter is set to 1 and the routers on the network support multicasting, then the WINS server will automatically find other WINS servers on the network and configure replication with them. If this parameter is set to 1 and the network routers do not support multicasting, then the WINS server will only find WINS servers on its subnet.
88 10 McastIntvl This parameter must have a type of REG_DWORD and has a minimum allowed value of 2400 seconds (40 minutes). This parameter specifies the time interval at which the WINS server sends its multicast announcements, so that it can be found by other WINS servers.
89 10 McastTtl This parameter must have a type of REG_DWORD and has a valid range of 1 to 32, with a default of 6. This specifies the number of hops, or jumps across a router, that a WINS multicast announcement will make.