Presentation on theme: "Network Protocols Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) NWLink NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI)"— Presentation transcript:
Network Protocols Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) NWLink NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI) AppleTalk Data Link Control (DLC) Infrared Data Association (IrDA)
Introduction to Network Protocols A protocol is a set of rules and conventions for sending information over a network. Protocols can be added or deleted at will and selectively bound to all network interfaces. Binding order is determined by the order in which the protocols were initially installed. Binding order can be changed at any time on a per-interface basis. Network services can be selectively enabled or disabled on a per-adapter or per-protocol basis.
TCP/IP The TCP/IP suite has been adopted by Microsoft as the strategic enterprise transport protocol for Microsoft Windows 2000. The Windows 2000 TCP/IP suite is designed to make it easy to integrate Microsoft enterprise networks into large-scale corporate, government, and public networks.
NWLink NWLink is Microsoft’s implementation of the Novell NetWare IPX/SPX protocol. NWLink supports a number of topologies and frame types.
NetBEUI NetBEUI is broadcast-based and is not routable. NetBEUI provides compatibility with existing LANs that use the NetBEUI protocol. NetBEUI provides computers running Windows 2000 with several capabilities.
AppleTalk Windows 2000 includes support for AppleTalk. AppleTalk allows Windows 2000 to be a router and a dial-up server. For the AppleTalk protocol to function properly, a Windows 2000 Server computer must be configured with Services for Macintosh and must be available on the network.
IrDA IrDA is a group of short-range, high-speed, bidirectional wireless infrared protocols. IrDA allows a variety of devices to communicate with one another. The IrDA protocol stack is accessed by using Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) connectionless drivers.
Configuring TCP/IP to Obtain an IP Address Automatically Using DHCP Using the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box to configure a DHCP client
Using Automatic Private IP Addressing Windows 2000 implementation of TCP/IP. Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) follows specific steps in assigning an IP address. After the computer generates the address, it broadcasts to this address and then assigns the address to itself if no other computer responds. Although APIPA can assign a TCP/IP address to Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) clients, it does not generate all the information that is provided by DHCP. Disabling automatic private IP addressing.
Troubleshooting TCP/IP Windows 2000 offers several utilities to assist you in troubleshooting TCP/IP.
Using Ipconfig Use ipconfig to verify the TCP/IP configuration parameters on a host. Executing the ipconfig /all command provides several results.
Using Ping To test connectivity To test TCP/IP configurations and diagnose connection failures To determine whether a particular TCP/IP host is available and functioning
Using Ipconfig and Ping The ipconfig command is used to verify that the TCP/IP configuration has been initialized. The ping command is used against the loopback address (127.0.0.1) to verify that TCP/IP is correctly installed and bound to your network adapter card. The ping command is used with the IP address of the local computer to verify that the computer is not a duplicate of another IP address on the network. The ping command is used with the IP address of the default gateway to verify that the default gateway is operational and that the computer can communicate with the local network. The ping command is used with the IP address of a remote host to verify that the computer can communicate through a router.
Overview of DHCP DHCP is a TCP/IP standard for simplifying the management of IP configuration. Each time a DHCP client starts, it requests IP addressing information from a DHCP server. When a DHCP server receives a request for an IP address, it selects IP addressing information from a pool of addresses defined in its database and offers the IP addressing information to the DHCP client.
Creating a DHCP Scope After you have installed the DHCP Service and it is running, the next step is to create a scope. When creating a DHCP scope, consider several guidelines. Use the DHCP snap-in to create a scope. You can specify a number of parameters when creating a new scope. Once you have created the scope, you must activate it to make it available for lease assignments.
Authorizing the DHCP Server A DHCP server must be authorized in Active Directory services before it can assign IP addresses. Authorization is a security precaution that ensures that only authorized DHCP servers run on your network. Use the DHCP snap-in to authorize the DHCP server.
The WINS Name Resolution Process Every time a WINS client starts, it registers its NetBIOS name/IP address mapping with a designated WINS server. It then queries the WINS server for the computer name resolution. When a WINS client initiates a NetBIOS command to communicate with another network resource, it sends the name query request directly to the WINS server instead of broadcasting the request on the local network. The WINS server finds a NetBIOS name/IP address mapping for the destination resource in this database, and it returns the IP address to the WINS client.
Name Renewal A WINS server registers all NetBIOS names on a temporary basis so that other computers can use the same name later if the original owner stops using it. To continue using the same NetBIOS name, a client must renew its lease before the lease expires. A WINS client first attempts to refresh its lease after one-eighth of the Time to Live (TTL) interval has expired. When half the TTL interval has expired, the WINS client attempts to refresh its lease with a secondary WINS server. When a WINS server receives the name refresh request, it sends the client a name refresh response with a new TTL interval.
Name Release When a WINS client’s name is no longer in use, the client sends a message to the WINS server to release the name. When the WINS server receives the name release request, it checks its database for the specified name.
Name Query After a WINS client has registered its NetBIOS name and IP address with a WINS server, it can communicate with other hosts by obtaining the IP address of other NetBIOS-based computers from the WINS server. By default, a WINS client attempts to resolve another host’s NetBIOS name to an IP address.
WINS Server Configuration A WINS server requires a computer running Windows 2000 Server; however, the server does not have to be a domain controller. A WINS server can include additional configurations.
WINS Client Configuration A WINS client must be running one of the supported operating systems. A WINS client also requires the IP address of a primary WINS server and optionally, the IP address of a secondary WINS server.
WINS Installation The WINS service is not installed as part of the default Windows 2000 Server installation. After you install the WINS Service, you should configure its TCP/IP properties so that the computer points to itself.
Host Names Host names refer to specific computers on the Internet or a private network. A host name is the leftmost portion of the fully qualified domain name (FQDN), which describes the exact position of a host within the domain hierarchy. DNS uses a host’s FQDN to resolve a name to an IP address.
Domain Naming Guidelines Limit the number of domain levels. Use unique names. Use simple names. Avoid lengthy domain names. Use standard DNS characters and Unicode characters.
Name Servers A DNS name server stores the zone database file. Name servers can store data for one zone or multiple zones. There must be at least one name server for a zone. A zone can have multiple name servers associated with it. Multiple name servers provide several advantages.
Introduction to the Name Resolution Process Name resolution is the process of resolving names to IP addresses. DNS name servers resolve forward and reverse lookup queries.
Name Server Caching When a name server is processing a query, it might be required to send out several queries to find the answer. When a name server receives a query request, several events occur. Caching query results enables the name server to quickly resolve other queries to the same portion of the domain namespace.
Reverse Lookup Query A reverse lookup query maps an IP address to a name. Because the DNS distributed database is indexed by name and not by IP address, a reverse lookup query would require an exhaustive search of every domain name. The in-addr.arpa domain is based on IP addresses, not domain names.
Installing the DNS Service To implement DNS, you must configure the server and then install the DNS service. The DNS server must be configured with a static IP address. The DNS installation process accomplishes a number of tasks.
Creating Forward Lookup Zones A forward lookup zone enables forward lookup queries. You can configure three types of zones. Typically, a zone is named after the highest domain in the hierarchy that the zone encompasses.
Creating Reverse Lookup Zones A reverse lookup zone enables reverse lookup queries. Reverse lookup zones are not required; however, a reverse lookup zone is required to run troubleshooting tools and to record a name instead of an IP address in log files. The zone types are the same as the zone type options available in creating a forward lookup zone. Enter your network ID or the name of the reverse lookup zone.
Adding Resource Records Once you create your zones, you can use the DNS snap-in to add resource records. When a zone is created, DNS automatically adds two resource records. For a list of other types of resource records along with a description of each type, open the Resource Record Type dialog box.
Configuring Dynamic DNS Dynamic updates DDNS and DHCP