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Digital Rights Management (DRM) 1 By Clayton Bodendein.

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1 Digital Rights Management (DRM) 1 By Clayton Bodendein

2 Topics covered History of DRM What DRM is Used For Different Types of DRM Interoperable DRM on Linux DRM in Ubiquitous Computing Opponents of DRM 2

3 History 1998 – Digital Millennium Copyright Act ◦ Illegal to produce technology to bypass DRM ◦ Cryptography research suffered  Fear of being penalized 2005 – Sony CD rootkits ◦ Opened security vulnerabilities Peer-to-peer software ◦ Used improperly to share copyrighted material ◦ Led to lawsuits from major music labels 3

4 What DRM is Used For 3 main purposes ◦ Establish a copyright ◦ Manage the distribution of content ◦ Control what can be done with the content by the end-user 4

5 Apple FairPlay example DRM scheme formerly used on iTunes Encrypted the audio stream of the file User key to decrypt stored on Apple servers Each computer authorized has unique ID ◦ Unauthorized computers wouldn’t be able to play it. 5

6 Different Types of DRM 6

7 Different types of DRM: Always-On DRM Common Easy to implement Software only usable when connected to internet Software “checks-in” with servers to make sure it’s still online Used in video games ◦ Leads to piracy 7

8 Different types of DRM: USB Key Also easy to implement Software only usable when USB key is plugged in Benefit over always-on: Can install software on any number of computers ◦ Can’t be run at the same time ◦ More flexibility for the user 8

9 Different types of DRM: Digital Watermark Used as part of a DRM scheme Used primarily in the media Verifies integrity of the video/audio signal If signal is modified, the watermark won’t show. ◦ Indicates that the integrity has been compromised. 9

10 Different types of DRM: Fingerprinting Verifies by looking at raw signal of files. Benefit: Can verify independent of file type Each user gets uniquely redundant part of file. ◦ If modified, the file shows this redundancy. ◦ This IDs the person who modified it. 10

11 Interoperable DRM on Linux 11

12 DRM compatibility Compatibility between DRM systems is difficult One solution is that all DRM schemes connect to server to verify access An easy, but not to elegant solution, is to intercept system calls to the kernel 12

13 How it’s done To prevent from using “Save As”, intercept the call to sys_write ◦ Problem: This affects all calls to sys_write for all programs ◦ Solution: Windows inspection 13

14 Windows Inspection If the application that called sys_write is a protected file, then it redirects the sys_write call. Otherwise, it does the normal sys_write function. (As seen in next slide) 14

15 Windows Inspection 15

16 Windows Inspection Can also be used to intercept copy and paste commands Solution: Check the focused window before redirecting the system calls No need to always be connect to server to verify license 16

17 DRM in Ubiquitous Computing 17

18 Ubiquitous Computing Everything has a computer in it Can share files easily How to enforce DRM? 18

19 Current DRM shortcomings Current DRM schemes require a lot of computing power. ◦ Checking entire video stream when switching devices requires a lot of computing power. ◦ Would not be a seamless experience 19

20 Current DRM shortcomings Current DRM schemes are very rigid when it comes to copying data easily. ◦ May need to register a device on content provider’s servers. ◦ May need to unplug USB key and plug it into another device. ◦ Again, would not be a seamless experience 20

21 Current DRM shortcomings Current DRM schemes tend to enforce their schemes from a centralized location. ◦ It’s not practical to check content provider’s servers to allow devices to use the content. ◦ Again, would not be a seamless experience 21

22 Trusted Layers Solution The community enforces the DRM scheme themselves ◦ Each person has public level of integrity to keep up. ◦ If someone is sharing copyrighted material, you wouldn’t want to share with them.  It would hurt your integrity! ◦ The devices decide what devices are trustworthy 22

23 Trusted Layers Solution The community enforces the DRM scheme themselves ◦ Neighboring devices have a say in the trustworthiness of other devices. ◦ This trustworthiness data is shared globally  No “clean slate” if you move to another country 23

24 Trusted Layers Solution How to get people to participate? ◦ Companies could give incentives to people who don’t share copyrighted material  Access to cheaper content  Access to less restricted content ◦ Possibly penalize the sharers of copyrighted content?  May be more difficult to do Main point: Those who do not share restricted content get rewarded with more freedom with that content 24

25 Trusted Layers Solution How to implement this? Add a layer between the network stack and application layer ◦ Not all content is checked ◦ Result of checked data decides if data sending should continue 25

26 Trusted Layers Solution 26

27 Opponents of DRM 27

28 Opponents of DRM Free Software Foundation Created a movement called “Defective by Design” ◦ Flash mob used to gain awareness of DRM   Claim that DRM is toxic ◦ They say that DRM restricts user rights and stifles innovation 28

29 Opponents of DRM Major corporate CEOs Former Apple CEO Steve Jobs, former Microsoft CEO Bill Gates, and current Valve Corporation CEO Gabe Newell All have said that most DRM models do more harm than good, both to the user and for the company 29

30 Comments on DRM and Piracy Pottermore ◦ Website for the Harry Potter series produced in conjunction with Sony  Pottermore CEO Charlie Redmayne comments on DRM and piracy relationship with ebooks  (watch until 2:54) 30

31 Conclusion Everything becoming more digital, DRM schemes need to change too Some feel that DRM schemes are getting more and more restrictive ◦ Consumers may get fed up with it DRM schemes need to be improved to allow for a ubiquitous computing future 31

32 DRM-free living ◦ DRM-free audiobook, video and audio players, and other software DRM-free games ◦ GOG.com – Sells only DRM-free games GOG.com  Mostly old, but some new games 32

33 Summary History of DRM What DRM is Used For Different Types of DRM Interoperable DRM on Linux DRM in Ubiquitous Computing Opponents of DRM 33

34 References Goble, G. (2011, June 14). DRM from 1998 to the Present: A Brief History of Copy Protection. Maximum PC. Retrieved February 6, 2013, from Layton, J. (2006, January 3). How Digital Rights Management Works. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved February 7, 2013, from Wang, Y., & Liu, X. (2009). Key Techniques of Interoperable DRM on Linux Platform. In Eighth IEEE International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, DASC ’09 (pp. 335 –338). Presented at the Eighth IEEE International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, DASC ’09. doi: /DASC Merabti, M., & Llewellyn-Jones, D. (2006). Digital rights management in ubiquitous computing. IEEE MultiMedia, 13(2), 32 – 42. doi: /MMUL Free software is a matter of liberty, not price — Free Software Foundation — working together for free software. (n.d.). Retrieved February 7, 2013, from 34

35 References Digital Millennium Copyright Act. (n.d.). Retrieved February 8, 2013, from FairPlay. (n.d.). Retrieved February 8, 2013, from Karmali, L. (2012, September 5). Ubisoft Officially Ditches Always-On DRM. IGN. Retrieved February 13, 2013, from Digital watermarking. (n.d.). Retrieved February 13, 2013, from Digital rights management. (n.d.). Retrieved February 28, 2013, from Bishop, M., & Frincke, D. A. (2006). Who owns your computer? [digital rights management]. IEEE Security Privacy, 4(2), 61 –63. doi: /MSP Serrao, C., Dias, M., & Delgado, J. (2007). Key Management in Open DRM Platforms. In Third International Conference on Automated Production of Cross Media Content for Multi-Channel Distribution, AXMEDIS ’07 (pp. 47 –54). Presented at the Third International Conference on Automated Production of Cross Media Content for Multi-Channel Distribution, AXMEDIS ’07. doi: /AXMEDIS


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