Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 3 Introduction to the Periodic Table Fill in the blanks in your notes with the words or phrases in red.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Introduction to the Periodic Table Fill in the blanks in your notes with the words or phrases in red."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Introduction to the Periodic Table Fill in the blanks in your notes with the words or phrases in red.

2 Warm-up Questions #1 What is an octave? (Hint: look at the picture below) octave

3 Development of the Modern Periodic Table  The Search for a Periodic Table…  Chemists wanted to organize the elements into a system that would show similarities while acknowledging differences.  Atomic mass used as the basis  J.W. Döbereiner (1829)  Classified some elements with similar properties into groups of three called triads  Their properties varied in an orderly way according to their atomic masses.  John Newlands (1864)  Created the law of octaves which stated that the properties of the elements repeated every eighth element

4 Development of the Modern Periodic Table  Dimitri Mendeleev (1869)  Arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass into columns with similar properties  Predicted the existence and properties of undiscovered elements  Showed that the properties of the elements repeat in an orderly way from row to row of the table  Periodicity is the tendency to recur at regular intervals.  Henry Moseley (1913)  Discovered that atoms of each element contain a unique number of protons in their nuclei (=atomic number)  Arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic number to show a clear periodic pattern of properties  The statement that the physical and chemical properties of the elements repeat in a regular pattern when they are arranged in order of increasing atomic number is known as the periodic law.

5 Development of the Modern Periodic Table

6 Exit Question #1 What does the game “Battleship” have in common with the modern periodic table?

7 Benchmark  Based on the presentation in slides 1-6 and the information on pages 86-94, you should be able to do homework #1 in your packet.

8 Warm-up Question #2 What do the following objects all have in common?

9 Classification of the Elements  The Modern Periodic Table…  Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number into a series of columns, called groups (or families), and rows, called periods.  The groups designated with an “A” are often referred to as the main group, or representative elements.  The groups designated with a “B” are referred to as the transition elements.

10 Classification of the Elements  Metals are elements that are generally shiny when smooth and clean, solid at room temperature, and good conductors of heat and electricity.  Group 1A elements (except for hydrogen) are known as the alkali metals.  Group 2A elements are known as the alkaline earth metals.  Group B elements (transition elements) are divided into transition metals and inner transition metals  Lanthanide series and actinide series

11 Classification of the Elements

12  Nonmetals are elements that are generally gases or brittle, dull-looking solids, and poor conductors of heat and electricity.  Group 7A elements are known as the halogens.  Group 8A elements are known as the noble gases.

13 Classification of the Elements  Metalloids are elements with physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals.  Semiconductors

14 Exit Question #2 Why is the last group of the periodic table known as the noble gases?

15 Benchmark  Based on the information on slides 8-14 and pages of your text, you should now be able to complete homework #2

16 Warm-up Question #3 Which one comes up next in the sequence?

17 Periodic Trends  Atomic Radius…  Trends within periods  Decrease in atomic radii as you move left- to-right across a period  Trends within groups  Increase in atomic radii as you move down a group

18 Periodic Trends  Electronegativity…  The electronegativity of an element indicates the relative ability of its atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond.  Trend within periods  Increases as you move left-to-right across a period  Trend within groups  Decreases as you move down a group

19 Periodic Trends  Valence Electrons…  Atoms in the same group have similar chemical properties because they have the same number of valence electrons.  The energy level of an atom’s valence electrons indicate the period in which it is found.  A representative element’s group number and the number of valence electrons it contains are equal (with a few exceptions).  Atoms can gain or lose one or more electrons and acquire a net charge.  An ion is at atom or a bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.  The octet rule states that atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons.

20 Exit Questions #3 Why do you think that the size of the atom increases as you go from the top of the periodic table to the bottom of the table?

21 Benchmark  Based on the information on slides alone, (this information is not in your book), you should be able to complete homework #3  Your homework (#1-3) is due on Wednesday, 12/12.  The homework quiz is on Wednesday as well


Download ppt "Chapter 3 Introduction to the Periodic Table Fill in the blanks in your notes with the words or phrases in red."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google