Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Stress patterns in English words ultimatepen-ultimatepre-pen-ultimate 2 syllable words propose, tattoo control, canoe betray forget pirate tuba Marxist.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Stress patterns in English words ultimatepen-ultimatepre-pen-ultimate 2 syllable words propose, tattoo control, canoe betray forget pirate tuba Marxist."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stress patterns in English words ultimatepen-ultimatepre-pen-ultimate 2 syllable words propose, tattoo control, canoe betray forget pirate tuba Marxist nature syllable words ? agenda appendix redundant Vancouver pedigree president Galveston colony family 4 syllable words ?democratic correspondent Honolulu economy democracy colonial interior Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 1

2 Stress patterns in “English” non-sense words ultimatepen-ultimatepre-pen-ultimate 2 syllable words grofot bidou frodose trivol ripate buta karmist narute syllable words ---- edanga addinpox Couvancor dedondont gipidry sipredint locany Velgostan 4 syllable words ----lototunu pocusrondant modudramie cremodacy conolial reinteor enocomy Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 2 The syllable selected for stress follows from a rule

3 Stress patterns in “English” non-sense words ultimatepen-ultimatepre-pen-ultimate 2 syllable words grofot bidou frodose trivol ripate buta karmist narute syllable words ---- edanga addinpox Couvancor dedondont gipidry sipredint locany Velgostan 4 syllable words ----lototunu pocusrondant modudramie cremodacy conolial reinteor enocomy Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 3 The syllable selected for stress follows from a rule

4 The stress rules distinctions in a language (there are more) quantity - heavy syllable - light syllable CVVan-cou-ver CVCre-dun-dant CV democracy foot - trochaic (strong-weak) - iambic (weak-strong) [   ] Paris directedness feet are assigned - from left-to-right - from right-to-left   (  ) (  )   extra-metric syllable ‘ternary’ feet dealt with - e-le-(phant), pre-si-(dent) canoe, tatoe Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 4

5 Stress derivations in English Por tu (gal) a ka (ba) A me ri (ca) Ho no lu (lu) => leave last syllable out => parse in trochees => from right to left => main stress on rightness foot Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 5

6 Stress patterns in English words again pen-ultimatepre-pen-ultimate 3 syllable words agenda appendix redundant Vancouver pedigree president Galveston colony family 4 syllable words democratic correspondent Honolulu economy democracy colonial interior Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 6

7 Questions for cue ~ students 1.Are stress patterns rules that are acquired? (probably, we agree over stress in non-sense words) 2.Which simplifications (truncations for example) are applied by the child? (assemble data) 3.Which pre-system predicts the simplifications? (be careful that your pre-system is truly more simple) 4.What does the pre-system suggest for naturally learnable systems in general? Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 7

8 Historical background: Jakobson (1942) Kindersprache, Afasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze Some 20 universal articulation oppositions suffice to cover all natural language sound systems. The oppositions follow from the articulation apparatus. For example, the non-sonorant consonants (in English/ Dutch) can be based on 4  options, is 2 4 =16 items,,, See next slide Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 8

9 Historical background: Jakobson (1942) Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 9

10 Historical background: Jakobson (1942) 1.Children learn the speech sounds of their language in a predictable order. 2.That order is fixed in a hierarchy of universal (articulation) features. 3.Some features are always used in all languages and other features are only used in some languages. 4.The always chosen features are learned first, the vowels aa - ie - oe and consonants p - t – k. 5.Features that are learned early are historically more stable and typologically more spread. 6.In aphasia, the features that were acquired last disappear first, and the features acquired first disappear last. Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 10

11 Historical background: Jakobson (1942) 1.- Suppose, there is no language that lacks the p or the aa. - Child language tends to start with these two sounds (pa-pa). - These sounds are “most innate” (least marked) The p is the maximal closure of the mouth. - The aa is maximally opening the mouth. - This yields the UG properties: maximal articulation contrast; easiest to tell apart; most learnable; occurs in all languages 3. - Jacobson attempts to derive (part of) UG from a hierarchy in neural (articulation) controls. - He does not propose that the learnability hierarchy is specific to the language faculty. Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 11

12 Cues for stress rules (Dresher 1999) Dresher (1999) proposes cues for all stress parameters A cue 1.is a well identifiable characteristic of the input. 2.causes (triggers) the learner to set an a priori parameter. 3.holds the learner to his initial choice. 4.causes an acquisition order. Blind deterministic effect Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 12

13 Learnability order (Dresher 1999) Certain cues are listened to before others. Dresher (1999) proposes that there are early decisions: quantity: which syllables are ‘light’, which are ‘heavy’? extra-metric syllables: which syllable positions are extra-metrical? Later cues would trigger type of foot: [   ] (trochee) or [   ] (iambe) (Hierarchy of cues is an additional assumption. It is not yet much of an explanation) Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 13

14 Learnability order (Dresher 1999) How can the child find out it is handy to differentiate between light syllable/ heavy syllable? Dresher proposes: Let the child’s learning procedure compare three and four syllable words. If the penultimate gets stress it is closed - VC (correspondent) or tensed (Vancouver) If the penultimate is not stressed, it is open (Portugal) and stress falls on the pre-penultimate Hence, stress distribution in 3 or 4 syllable words may lead to the distribution between strong/weak syllables. That must be due to a syllable quality in the pen-ultimate. Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 14

15 Acquisition questions for Dresher’s proposal Dresher’s proposal (as he explicitly admits) is a mere theoretical proposal. He doesn’t consider: Acquisition questions 1.Which percentage of the child’s lexicon consists of 3 or 4- syllable words? 2.Why should the child be so concerned about the pen- and pre-penultimate stress in these words? 3.At which age is it clear that stress in 3 and 4-syllable words is well-established? 4.Is it only after that point that the extra-metricality and the quantity in two-syllable words become obvious? ETC… Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 15

16 Truncation patterns in English child language See the following patterns of simplifications by Kehoe & Stoel-Gammon (1997) S(W)S(W)SWS(W)SW also truncated CRO(co)DILE(ba)NAnaAL(li)GAtor DI(no)SAUR(to)MAtoHE(li)COPter TE(le)PHONE(po)TAtoA(vo)CAdo S(W)SS(W)W KAN(ga)ROOA(ni)mal CHIM(pan)ZEEE(le)phant OC(to)pus Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 16

17 Truncation patterns in child language Acquisition facts Initially, all words are reduced to a two-syllable pattern. Mute syllables (consonant-schwa) are left out in the middle (exclusion of all 3- and 4-syllable words). The percentage of trochaic forms may now be overwhelming. I will not pursue the matter, but jump to the moral: 1.Look at the child’s simplifications first. 2.Look at percentages in his/her acquisition data. Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 17

18 The moral 1.Look at the child’s simplifications first. 2.Recalculate his input from that point of view. The acquisition procedure: leave out syllables based on a mute vowel ‘schwa’ settles the habit of perceiving in trochaic frames. The later addition of mute syllables at the end or middle maintains the original trochee and adds extra- metrical syllables. I will not pursue this, but the decision; throw out all mute syllables, seems simpler than: consider first stress in 3 and 4-syllable words. Stress Patterns Week I-Tuesday 18 Acquisition order


Download ppt "Stress patterns in English words ultimatepen-ultimatepre-pen-ultimate 2 syllable words propose, tattoo control, canoe betray forget pirate tuba Marxist."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google