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Workforce Education Policy in the Past Thirty Years Kat Bradley-Bennett Jeffrey Sturgeon Rhiannon Tovani Colorado State University EDAE601 Philosophy.

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Presentation on theme: "Workforce Education Policy in the Past Thirty Years Kat Bradley-Bennett Jeffrey Sturgeon Rhiannon Tovani Colorado State University EDAE601 Philosophy."— Presentation transcript:


2 Workforce Education Policy in the Past Thirty Years Kat Bradley-Bennett Jeffrey Sturgeon Rhiannon Tovani Colorado State University EDAE601 Philosophy of Workforce Education Tobin Lopes, Professor July, 2012 NEXT

3 Trends in the Past 30 Years: Workplace Changes Higher skill requirements for many jobs Decision-making responsibility shifting to the front-line worker Technological changes “We are currently preparing students for jobs that don’t yet exist.” (Karl Fisch, Did You Know?)Karl Fisch NEXT (Nelson, 2007)Nelson, 2007

4 Policies Prior to 1980 The Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933 – U.S. Employment Service offices National Apprenticeship Act of 1937 The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of 1952 (McCarran–Walter Act) restricted immigration into the U.S. The Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Program established under the Trade Act of 1974 provided aid to workers who lost their jobs or whose hours of work and wages were reduced due to increased imports NEXT

5 Legislation Since 1980 Job Training Partnership Act of 1982 (JTPA) Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of1996 (PRWORA) – Welfare as a transition to work The Trade Adjustment Assistance Reform Act of 2002 The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) (the “Stimulus Bill”) ◦ Create and save jobs ◦ Spur economic activity and long-term investment ◦ Foster better accountability and transparency in government spending Veterans Retraining Assistance Program of 2011 (VRAP) (VOW to Hire Veterans) NEXT

6 Biggest Policy Changes Since 1980 Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) NEXT

7 Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) in a Nutshell Required employers to attest to their employees' immigration status Made it illegal to knowingly hire or recruit unauthorized immigrants Granted amnesty to certain seasonal agricultural illegal immigrants and to illegal immigrants who entered the United States before January 1, 1982 and lived here continuously NEXT

8 Impact of IRCA People who had been living on the fringes suddenly entered the workforce Adult education providers had to develop new collaborative relationships to accommodate the growing student population Employers needed training for under-skilled workers The need for basic skills became the foundation of adult education and WFED. (Nelson, 2007)Nelson NEXT

9 Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) in a Nutshell Amended Wagner-Peyser, repealed JTPA Each state sets up a Workforce Investment Board and 5-year strategic plan Local Youth Councils Established the “One-Stop” delivery system and funding for states and localities to serve adults, dislocated workers, and youth “WIA’s goal is to provide workforce development services to employers and workers through a universally accessible, information-driven, one-stop career center system. “ (AFL-CIO)AFL-CIO NEXT

10 Impacts of WIA Pushed workforce development and adult education to develop new collaborative relationships Provided funding to address employers’ needs for qualified workers and workers’ needs for increased wages and job security The need for basic skills became the foundation for higher level skills training NEXT

11 Standards for WFED: SCANS 1990 Labor Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) ◦ 3-part Foundation: Basic Skills, Thinking Skills, Personal Qualities  5 Workplace Content Standards: Resources, Interpersonal, Information, Systems, Technology  20 competency indicators Many life & work textbooks for adults are standardized to SCANS NEXT

12 Standards for WFED: Equipped for the Future (EFF) Equipped for the Future Tools & Standards for Building & Assessing Quality Adult Literacy Programs (1994) Equipped for the Future ◦ Developed by National Institute for Literacy (NIFL) ◦ 4 Purposes for Learning: Access, Voice, Action, Bridge to the Future  3 Role Maps: Worker, Citizen, Parent  13 Common Activities  16 Content Standards Many life & work textbooks for adults are standardized to EFF NEXT

13 Trends: The impact of skill on productivity in thirty years NEXT

14 Trends: The impact of education on the workplace in 60 years NEXT

15 Trends: Demographic Changes ◦ Aging of the workforce ◦ Increase in the percentage of workers whose first language is not English Nearly half of the growth in the US labor force in the 1990s and 60 percent between 2000 and 2004 was due to new immigrants. (Migration Policy Institute)Migration Policy Institute NEXT About 8,000 people turn 60 every day. (NCAL)NCAL

16 BMW and the Aging Workforce NEXT Watch this video (2:39) and see how BMW has responded to the aging of the workforce. (Click on the video to open, or copy and paste in your web browser.)

17 MacDonald’s and the Non-English Speaking Workforce Curriculum is contextualized to interactions typical in a MacDonald’s restaurant Classes are held in the break room during employees’ paid time Students are provided a laptop The company covers all of the costs The results… (Jaschik, 2009)Jaschik NEXT

18 MacDonald’s Results from 2008 SkillBeforeAfter Talk with supervisor about work41%70% Talk with co-workers about work50%74% Talk with co-workers about myself39%72% Small talk24%59% Read directions or work orders39%77% Call in when sick64%92% Understand how the company works40%74% Answer the phone44%89% Write notes in imperfect English29%62% Write notes in pretty good English11%40% NEXT (Jaschik, 2009)Jaschik

19 Partnership Profile: Workforce Initiative Now (WIN) WIN Partnership of RTD, Community College of Denver, Denver Transit Partners (DTP) and the Urban League of Metropolitan Denver Create career opportunities in the transportation and construction industries through skills training, placement assistance, and resources to help people secure industry positions. NEXT

20 Many Stakeholders in WFED Employers Organized labor Groups of workers (from different ethnic, language groups, or departments) Local, state, and federal governments Education providers Communities at large Workers! NEXT

21 Funding Mechanisms and Delivery of Service 1 Workforce Investment Act ◦ WIA Title 1 – Funds Workforce and One-Stop Career Centers (connecting people with services and support)WorkforceOne-Stop Career Centers ◦ WIA Title II – Funds adult education through the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) for ESL, GED, high school diploma NEXT

22 U.S. Department of Education ◦ Even Start Family Literacy Program – basic literacy of parents and children Even Start Colorado ◦ School to Work Alliance Project (SWAP) Partners CO Dept of Voc-Rehab, school districts, and BOCES (for youth with mild to moderate disabilities)SWAP ◦ Career Pathways – Bring career planning, job training, and certification into high schools and higher education Funding Mechanisms and Delivery of Service 2 NEXT

23 Policy Challenge: Preparing an information economy workforce Creating proper learning designs for workforce education Creating accessible and universal opportunities for learner participation Developing critically reflective learners who can create and adapt knowledge for new understandings and practices in the knowledge economy NEXT

24 Challenge: Balancing education with student and workforce needs Technology Interpersonal/Intrapersonal skills “The previous emphasis on technical proficiency alone has now been expanded to include effective writing, speaking, listening, and time management skills.” (Higdon, 2004)Higdon “… the transformation of cities from centers of goods processing to centers of information processing contributes to a loss of low-skilled city jobs.” (Kasarda & Ting, 1996)Kasarda & Ting NEXT

25 In Summary… Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) and the Workforce Investment Act of 1988 have shaped WFED today. The workforce is changing, JOBS are changing! WFED needs to be adaptable. Companies can be dynamic leaders in WFED. It’s all about partnerships! NEXT

26 Task #1: Watch a Video How Will the World Look in 2020 (5:20) RT1k9w&feature=related RT1k9w&feature=related What are three trends that most fascinated you from the video? How do you think these trends will affect workforce education policy? NEXT

27 Your Task #2: Case Study The Challenge: To get the education community to truly understand the workplace skills necessary Read this case study of Phillips StaffingPhillips Staffing (or copy and paste into your browser: Do you think that other companies (besides those involved in staffing)could benefit from implementing and using the ACT Work readiness system? Why or why not? Follow the discussion thread in our group’s discussion board NEXT

28 Task #3: Questions Compared to the private sector, do you think that government will play a larger role, a lesser role, or an equal role in workforce education policy in the future? What do you see government’s role to be? What partnerships provide WFED in your community? What partnerships are missing? Follow this discussion on our group’s discussion board NEXT


30 Resources 2 Million 'Open Jobs'? Yes, But U.S. Has A Skills Mismatch. (2011) [Radio], All Things Considered: National Public Radio. AFL-CIO. (2012). Workforce Investment Act Fact Sheets. Working for America. Retrieved 7/12/12, 2012, from Bloom, M. C., Alison. (2002). Success by Design: What Works in Workforce Development. Ottawa, Ontario: The Conference Board of Canada. Coppola, Manuel C. (June 16, 2011). McDonald's employees learning ‘English under the arches’. Nogales International. Retrieved 7/12/12 from learning-english-under-the-arches/article_6656f752-6376-562d-8877- e0cbdd675168.html learning-english-under-the-arches/article_6656f752-6376-562d-8877- e0cbdd675168.html NEXT

31 Resources cont.. Fisch, Karl & McLeod, Scott (2008). Did You Know? YouTube. Retrieved 7/13/12 from Higdon, L. (2004). Preparing Students for a Tough Job Market. University Business, (Sept. 2004), Viewpoints. Retrieved from University Business website: tough-job-market tough-job-market Jaschik, S. (2009). Special Sauce for ESL. Inside Higher Ed Retrieved 7/5/12, 2012, from Mauller, G. (2002). Workforce Development Trends: Importance of Continuing Education, Lifelong Learning. Creating Quality, 11(12). Nelson, C. (2004). After the Grant Is Over, Do workplaces continue to fund programs that were initiated with public funds? Focus on Basics, 7, 1-6. Nelson, C. (2007). Annotated Bibliography on Workplace Education Review of Adult Learning and Literacy (Vol. 7, pp. 311-329), Reviewed 6/30/12 from Bibliography on Workplace Education NEXT

32 Resources cont… Secretary’s Commission for Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). (1991). What Work Requires of Schools, A SCANS Report for America 2000. Executive Summary (pp. 13-16): United States Department of Labor. Retrieved 7/12/12 from ERIC rue&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED332054&ERICExtSearch_ SearchType_0=no&accno=ED332054 rue&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED332054&ERICExtSearch_ SearchType_0=no&accno=ED332054 Spangenberg, G. W., Sarah (2003). Equipped for the Future, Tools & Standards for Building & Assessing Quality Adult Literacy Programs New York, NY: Council for Advancement of Adult Literacy. United States Department of Labor (2007). Retrieved July 15, 2012 from NEXT

33 Resources cont… Vets First (2012) retrieved July 15, 2012 from Workforce Education, Policy and Legislation (2012) retrieved July 15, 2012 from Zuboff, S. (1988). In the Age of the Smart Machine. New York: Basic Books. END

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