Sentence Variety 6 types 1.Simple Sentences 2.Compound Sentences 3.Complex Sentences 4.Compound-Complex 5.Sentence with Appositive Phrase 6.Sentence with Participle Phrase
The Simple Sentence A simple sentence is also called an independent clause (it has one subject and one verb): I live in San Francisco. Subject Verb
Compound Sentence A compound sentence is made up of two simple sentences joined by one of the following: A semicolon I like to study grammar; I love this class. A conjunction (FANBOYS) I like to study grammar, and I love this class. A semicolon and a transitional word I like to study grammar; therefore, I love this class
Connect Using a Semicolon Independent Clause ; Independent Clause I love living in the city ; there are so many things to do. Independent Clause
Connect Using a Coordinating Conjunction Independent Clause,coordinating conjunction Independent Clause He couldn ’ t watch the show, so he decided to tape it. Independent Clause
FANBOYS For F And A Nor N But B Or O Yet Y So S Another way to remember these is…
CAUTION! Do NOT use a comma every time you use the words and, or, but, nor, for, so, yet. Use a comma only when the coordinating conjunction joins two independent clauses. Independent Clause No comma- not an independent clause The necklace was beautiful but expensive. Simple Sentence
Connect Using a Transition Independent Clause ; transition, Independent Clause I love San Francisco ; however, I hate the traffic. Independent Clause Click here to see lists of transitions.
FINALLY Combine Two Sentences to make it a Compound Sentence. Use either a semicolon, coordinating conjunction or a semicolon with a transitional word She works in the city She lives in the suburbs. Independent Clause ; ;however,,but
John cannot set up his typewriter because the wall has no outlet. Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause. Dependent clauses begin with key words Independent Clause Dependent Clause Subordinating Conjunction
Complex Sentence The Dependent Clause in this sentence begins with a Subordinating Conjunction She will go to school in the city until she finds a job. Independent Clause Dependent Clause Subordinating Conjunction
When I first moved to the city, I was afraid to drive the steep and narrow streets. Complex Sentences Use a comma after a dependent clause if it begins the sentence. Subordinating Conjunction Independent Clause Use a comma if the dependent clause is the first part of the sentence. Dependent Clause
Complex Sentence I have read nearly every novel J.K. Rowling has written. Relative Pronoun that Independent Clause Dependent Clause The Dependent Clause in this sentence begins with a Relative Pronoun
Complex sentence Dr. Charles Richter devised the Richter scale, which is used to measure the magnitude of earthquakes. Independent Clause Dependent Clause Relative Pronoun The Dependent Clause in this sentence begins with a Relative Pronoun.
Sentences using Appositive Phrase An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that immediately follows another noun. An appositive explains or defines the noun it follows and is set off by commas. Mexico City, the biggest city in the world, has many interesting archaeological sites. Mexico City = the biggest city in the world. Appositive noun
Sentences using Appositive Prase Appositives are always set off by commas. Denver, the capital of Colorado, is the home of the Denver Broncos, the best football team in the US. Denver = the capital of Colorado Denver Broncos = the best football team in the US. noun Noun Appositive
An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that immediately follows another noun. An appositive explains or defines the noun it follows and is set off by commas. Sophia, Daniela’s friend, said that maybe the party would be at Adam’s house. Appositiv e noun
Sentences using Appositive Another interesting aspect of Appositives is that they can always be exchanged with the nouns they modify. The altitude of Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, is over 12,000 feet. The altitude of the capital of Tibet, Lhasa, is over 12,000 feet. appositive noun
Participle Phrases add description to a sentence A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. Participles begin with key words that ends in –ing or –ed. Enjoying a beautiful day at the beach, Ms Moreno took her paddle board out to the ocean. Participle phrase Simple sentence
Participle Phrases add more description to a Simple Sentence 1) Confused by the strange directions in the letter, Sara looked at the map. 2) Josh ran to class, rushing through the halls at breakneck speed. 3) Looking at the cats competing for the prize, Sue chose the lovely Siamese. 4) Deb played with the little German shepherd, enchanted by its adorable personality. 5) Broken into a thousand pieces, the vase lay on the hallway floor. Do you see how the phrases add more description to the subject? Highlight the simple sentence and circle the participle phrase
Practice Exercises Now you are ready to practice what you ’ ve learned. Click the link below to return to Unit D. Print and complete the Practice Exercise on adding sentence structure variety to your writing. Check your answers with a tutor.
Correct! Excellent! These sentences read moresmoothly because it has more sentence structure variety. I love living in the city of San Francisco. I have a wonderful view of the entire city from my apartment window. In addition, I can see the Golden Gate Bridge under which many cargo ships pass each day. I also like San Francisco because I can find wonderful restaurants with food from just about every country; however, I don ’ t like the traffic in the city. Simple Sentences Compound/Complex Sentence Complex Sentence
Sentence Variety Combine Sentence to add variety to these simple sentences. Simple Sentences I love living in the city. I have a wonderful view of the entire city. I have an apartment. I can see the Golden Gate Bridge. I can see many cargo ships pass under the bridge each day. I like the restaurants in San Francisco. I can find wonderful food from just about every country. I don ’ t like the traffic in the city.
RelationshipTransition AdditionMoreover Furthermore In addition besides Reinforcement/EmphasisIndeed In fact ContrastHowever On the contrary In contrast On the other hand Result or EffectConsequently Accordingly Thus Hence Therefore As a result
Reinforcement/EmphasisIndeed In fact ExemplificationFor example For instance In particular ExemplificationFor example For instance In particular TimeMeanwhile (at the same time) Subsequently (after) Thereafter (after) RelationshipTransition
Adding Variety to Sentence Structure To make your writing more interesting, you should try to vary your sentences in terms of length and structure. You can make some of your sentences long and others short. Read the two paragraphs on the next page.
Combine the following Simple Sentences by making them Complex Sentences I love living in the city. I have a wonderful view of the entire city. I have an apartment. I can see the Golden Gate Bridge. I can see many cargo ships pass under the bridge each day. I like the restaurants in San Francisco. I can find wonderful food from just about every country. I don ’ t like the traffic in the city.
I love living in the city of San Francisco. I have a wonderful view of the entire city from my apartment window. In addition, I can see the Golden Gate Bridge under which many cargo ships pass each day. I also like San Francisco because I can find wonderful restaurants with food from just about every country; however, I don ’ t like the traffic in the city.
Dependent Clauses begin with Subordinating Conjunctions. Adjective clauses (begin with relative pronouns) Adverb clauses (begin with subordinating conjunctions) That Which Who Whom Whose When, Where (these last two are not relative pronouns but may also begin adjective clauses) After Although Because Before Since While When Until subordinating conjunctions tell where, when, how, why, and to what extent.