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Fermilab E = Mc 2 Opening Windows on the World Young-Kee Kim Fermilab and the University of Chicago June 1, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Fermilab E = Mc 2 Opening Windows on the World Young-Kee Kim Fermilab and the University of Chicago June 1, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fermilab E = Mc 2 Opening Windows on the World Young-Kee Kim Fermilab and the University of Chicago June 1, 2010

2 What is the world made of? What holds the world together? Where did we come from? the smallest things in the world interactions (forces) between them the Universe’s past, present, and future Particle Physics: physics where small and big things meet, inner and outer space meet Tools ?

3 atom X Ray machine Smaller objects

4 Accelerators 1 eV (electron Volt) 1 electron in 1 Volt battery GeV (billion eV) TeV (trillion eV)

5 Ernest Lawrence ( ) 1930 Fermilab Many generations of particle accelerators: each generation built on the accomplishments of the previous ones raising the level of technology ever higher CERN KEK 80 keV

6 Accelerators are Ultimate Microscopes. (higher energy beam particle = better resolution / small objects) nucleus p up quark, down quark, electron m nana nano meter What is the world made of? What holds the world together? p n n

7 Accelerators are like Time Machines. because they make particles last seen in the earliest moments of the universe. neutrinos muons kaons …. anti particles

8 Accelerators are like Time Machines. because they make particles last seen in the earliest moments of the universe.

9 because they make particles last seen in the earliest moments of the universe. E = Mc 2 particle anti particle E Accelerators are like Time Machines.

10 high intensity particle beam because they make particles last seen in the earliest moments of the universe. M E = Mc 2 Quantum Fluctuation Accelerators are like Time Machines.

11 high intensity neutrino beam because they make particles last seen in the earliest moments of the universe. E = Mc 2 Seesaw M Accelerators are like Time Machines.

12 top quark c b . c.   Z W gluons (proton mass = = ~1GeV/c 2 ) spin ½ spin 1 Fermion Boson

13 Pier Oddone, DOE SC Planning, April 29, 2009 The triumphs……… The present theory is a remarkable intellectual construction Particle experiments done at the laboratory beautifully fits in this framework Quarks Leptons Force Carriers

14 ……………. and the mysteries Quarks Leptons Force Carriers Why? …

15 ……………. and the mysteries Where did all antimatter go?

16 ……………. and the mysteries Galaxies are spinning too fast to be held together by gravity of the stars What is dark matter?

17 ……………. and the mysteries Expanding the universe Accelerating the universe What is dark energy?

18 What is the world made of? What holds the world together? Where did we come from? Primitive Thinker

19 Evolved Thinker What is the origin of mass for fundamental particles? Why are there so many kinds of particles? Do all the forces become one? Are there extra dimensions of space? What are neutrinos telling us? Do charged leptons change from one kind to another? Do protons decay? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? What happened to the antimatter? What is dark matter? How can we solve the mystery of dark energy? How did the universe come to be? 21 st Century Questions in Particle Physics

20 History of the Universe Accelerators: Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier Cosmic Frontier E = Mc 2

21 History of the Universe Unification, New Symmetry Towards simple, elegant, complete theory Accelerators: Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier Cosmic Frontier

22 History of the Universe One Force, Matter+Antimatter, Extra Dimension, New Symmetry, … Four Force, Matter, Origin of Mass, … Accelerators: Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier Cosmic Frontier

23 Fermilab today 1900 employees 2300 users (~1/2 from abroad) 6800 acres, park-like site A herd of American bison, symbolizing Fermillab’s presence on the frontiers of particle physics and the connection to its prairie origins

24 Now at Fermilab

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28 2010 Now at Fermilab

29 Tour of Accelerator Complex at Fermilab

30 Cockroft-Walton

31 Linac

32 Booster

33 Main Injector

34 Tevatron

35 Antiproton Recycler

36 Tevatron: CDF & DZero Add Antiproton line Reduce the CDF vertical size to match D0 Tevatron CDF and DZero CDF DZero CDF DZero Tevatron 2 TeV proton – antiproton collider

37 735 km 300 kW ’s from Main Injector ’s from Main Injector MINOS MINERvA

38 ’s from Booster ’s from Booster MiniBooNE 735 km 300 kW

39 Beam for Detector Development 735 km 300 kW

40 Test Facility for Accelerator Development Super Conducting RF Technology 735 km 300 kW

41 Test Facility for Muon Cooling 735 km 300 kW

42 SeaQuest Add a beamline SeaQuest Detector Photo Proton SeaQuest 735 km 300 kW

43 Fermilab Accelerator Complex Currently Operating Simultaneously

44 Fermilab Tevatron CERN LHC Lepton Collider Energy Frontier Accelerators (energy to be determined) (technology, site to be determined)

45 Neutrinos since 2013: NOvA, MINERvA MicroBooNENeutrinos NOvA MINERvA MicroBooNE 810 km 700 kW MicroBooNE NOvA2013

46 Neutrinos to DUSELNeutrinos neutrinos to DUSEL (proton decay)Muons muon  electron 700 kW 1300 km

47 Ray Davis’s Experiment

48 Project X Neutrino physics Muon physics Kaon physics Nuclear physics Project X Neutrino physics Muon physics Kaon physics Nuclear physics Remove Accelerators from Cockroft-Walton though Booster and Booster neutrino. All the green ones including MuCOOL stay Project X Neutrino physics Muon physics Kaon physics Nuclear physics “simultaneously” 2 MW ( GeV) 1300 km 2 MW at ~3 GeV flexible time structure and pulse intensities

49 0.5 – 1 TeV Linear Collider 4 TeV Muon Collider (Neutrino Factory) Superconducting RF Technology for Project X, ILC, Muon Collider, Neutrino Factory Project X upgrade from Project X to Lepton Collider / Neutrino Factory e+e-e+e- 

50     4 TeV e + e - ~1 TeV pp 14 TeV e + e - 3 TeV pp 2 TeV Tevatron -

51 Cosmic Frontier: Dark Matter & Dark Energy Fermilab CERN KEK

52 Underground experiments may detect Dark Matter candidates. Accelerators can produce dark matter in the laboratory and understand exactly what it is. Interplay: Energy – Intensity – Cosmic Frontiers Dark Matter nuclear recoil  ~ Cosmic Frontier Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier E Cosmic Frontier: Dark Matter

53 Telescopes (ground, space) Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Dark Energy Survey (DES) Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) Cosmic Frontier: Dark Energy

54 Particles Tell Stories! The discovery of a new particle is often the opening chapter revealing unexpected features of our universe. Particles are messengers telling a profound story about nature and laws of nature in microscopic world. The role of physicists is to find the particles and to listen to their stories.

55 Discovering a new particle is Exciting! Top quark event recorded early 90’s We have been listening to the story that top quarks are telling us: The top mass told us about the Higgs mass.


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