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1 ?v=0WN_YQUiWtU&feature=r elated ?v=0WN_YQUiWtU&feature=r elated

2 Genetically Manipulated Animals By: Craig Schimmer Ryan Richards Andrew York Grayson Phillips

3 What is a Transgenic Animal and How is it produced? Webster's Definition: Webster's Definition: Transgenic: being or used to produce an organism or cell of one species into which one or more genes of another species have been incorporated Transgenic: being or used to produce an organism or cell of one species into which one or more genes of another species have been incorporated Ex: a transgenic mouse or transgenic crops Ex: a transgenic mouse or transgenic crops How it’s done? How it’s done? 3 ways: 3 ways: Microinjection of Pronuclei Microinjection of Pronuclei Retroviral Insertion Retroviral Insertion Stem Cell Insertion Stem Cell Insertion

4 Examples of Transgenic Animal Uses Aedes Mosquitoes males were genetically manipulated to be sterile, released into the wild to mate with the females, thus reducing the population of mosquitoes because the female only mates once. Aedes Mosquitoes males were genetically manipulated to be sterile, released into the wild to mate with the females, thus reducing the population of mosquitoes because the female only mates once. Pro or Con?

5 PRO!!! Reducing the chance of malaria outbreaks and other diseases that mosquitoes carry Reducing the chance of malaria outbreaks and other diseases that mosquitoes carry Combating the number one parasitic disease in the world that could save thousands of lives Combating the number one parasitic disease in the world that could save thousands of lives Reduces the cost for further medical relief for third world countries who have malaria outbreaks Reduces the cost for further medical relief for third world countries who have malaria outbreaks

6 Next Example Transgenic Cows being released into general population that have higher than normal muscle mass Transgenic Cows being released into general population that have higher than normal muscle mass Resulting in higher amount of beef per cow and lower beef prices in the market Resulting in higher amount of beef per cow and lower beef prices in the market Pro or Con?

7 CON!!! The consumption of genetically altered animals have not been thoroughly studied and could have unforeseen consequences, possibly even be fatal to humans if consumed The consumption of genetically altered animals have not been thoroughly studied and could have unforeseen consequences, possibly even be fatal to humans if consumed The are no FDA regulations on genetically altered animals that are made for human consumption The are no FDA regulations on genetically altered animals that are made for human consumption The companies producing these products, are not required to label the products as genetically altered animals The companies producing these products, are not required to label the products as genetically altered animals Here is a thought, you could have possibly eaten a genetically altered animal today!!!! Here is a thought, you could have possibly eaten a genetically altered animal today!!!!

8 Pros vs. Cons Agriculture Agriculture Medicine Medicine Industry Industry Unforeseen Consequences Unforeseen Consequences Animal Cruelty Higher Mortality Rate Ethical and Moral Issues

9 Agriculture - Pros The EnviroPig The EnviroPig A reduced amount of Phosphorus produced in the waste of these pigs A reduced amount of Phosphorus produced in the waste of these pigs More environmentally friendly by reducing greenhouse gases More environmentally friendly by reducing greenhouse gases Transgenic cattle Transgenic cattle Created to produce milk containing particular human proteins, which may help in the treatment of human emphysema. Created to produce milk containing particular human proteins, which may help in the treatment of human emphysema. Created to produce milk for specific dairy products. Created to produce milk for specific dairy products.

10 Agriculture - Cons Unexpected Genotypic traits of Transgenic Animals Unexpected Genotypic traits of Transgenic Animals Enlarged organs Enlarged organs Lack of physical features Lack of physical features Addition of unwanted physical features Addition of unwanted physical features Transgenic animals not proven safe for human consumption Transgenic animals not proven safe for human consumption No FDA regulation or warning of genetically altered animal products. No FDA regulation or warning of genetically altered animal products.

11 Medicine - Pros Transgenic Mice Transgenic Mice Used in working with study the role of actively dividing blood cells in studying how inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations form. Used in working with study the role of actively dividing blood cells in studying how inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations form. Cancer Resistant mice Cancer Resistant mice Professors of UK found the “Par-4” gene in the prostate that kills cancer Cells but not normal cells Professors of UK found the “Par-4” gene in the prostate that kills cancer Cells but not normal cells Transgenic Mosquitoes Transgenic Mosquitoes Aedes aegypti OX513A males were genetically manipulated to contain a lethal allele that kill the progeny in late larvae or pupae stage were released into the wild to mate with the females, thus reducing the population of mosquitoes because the female only mates once. Aedes aegypti OX513A males were genetically manipulated to contain a lethal allele that kill the progeny in late larvae or pupae stage were released into the wild to mate with the females, thus reducing the population of mosquitoes because the female only mates once. Reducing the chance of dengue or malaria outbreaks and other diseases the mosquitoes carry Reducing the chance of dengue or malaria outbreaks and other diseases the mosquitoes carry

12 Medicine – Pros Cont’d Xenotransplantation Xenotransplantation Transplantation of animal organs and cells into humans Transplantation of animal organs and cells into humans Uses could include heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys Uses could include heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys Bone Marrow Transplant Mice Bone Marrow Transplant Mice

13 Medicine - Cons Animal Cruelty Animal Cruelty Although, a pro for humans, the suffering these animals go though living with human diseases is a form of animal cruelty Although, a pro for humans, the suffering these animals go though living with human diseases is a form of animal cruelty Virus Jumping in Xenotransplantation Virus Jumping in Xenotransplantation Whenever animals organs are transplanted into humans, the diseases that affect those animals can be transferred into humans and can be transmitted to the rest of the population Whenever animals organs are transplanted into humans, the diseases that affect those animals can be transferred into humans and can be transmitted to the rest of the population

14 Industry - Pros GloFish GloFish Genetically altered Zebra Fish that glow Genetically altered Zebra Fish that glow Created a new market for “decorative fish” that people wanted to purchase Created a new market for “decorative fish” that people wanted to purchase Simply put, they are genetically altered pets Simply put, they are genetically altered pets Spider Silk Sheep Spider Silk Sheep Goats are genetically altered to produce biosynthetic milk with spider silk proteins. Goats are genetically altered to produce biosynthetic milk with spider silk proteins. These proteins are used in the production of bullet proof clothing reducing the cost of such items to law enforcement and military. These proteins are used in the production of bullet proof clothing reducing the cost of such items to law enforcement and military.

15 Industry - Cons High Mortality rate High Mortality rate 1 out of 100 attempts produce a successful genetically manipulated animal. 1 out of 100 attempts produce a successful genetically manipulated animal. Expensive to produce these animals Expensive to produce these animals KFC chickens produced just for consumption KFC chickens produced just for consumption No feathers or wings No feathers or wings

16 Unforeseen Consequences Scientist don’t know what the future holds for evolution among nature and humans in regard to transgenetics because the unknown consequences they may bring forth. The science of transgenesis is new and the possibilities are vast, but the consequences are unknown. Scientist don’t know what the future holds for evolution among nature and humans in regard to transgenetics because the unknown consequences they may bring forth. The science of transgenesis is new and the possibilities are vast, but the consequences are unknown. Another issue is where to draw the line ethically. What is the difference between for the good of mankind and playing God. Another issue is where to draw the line ethically. What is the difference between for the good of mankind and playing God.

17 Sources Pursel, V.; Rexroad Jr, C. Status of Research with Transgenic Farm Animals. [http://jas.fass.org/cgi/reprint/71/suppl_3/10] Journal of Animal Science 71:10-19; Margawati, E. Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits to Human Welfare. [http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/margawati.html] ActionBioscience.org. [http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/full/81/14_suppl_2/E68] Journal of Animal Science 81:E68-77; Forsberg, C.; Phillips, J.; Golovan, S.; Fan, M.; Meidinger, R.; Ajakaiye, A.; Hilborn, D.; Hacker R. The Enviropig physiology, performance, and contribution to nutrient management advances in a regulated environment: The leading edge of change in the pork industry [http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/full/81/14_suppl_2/E68] Journal of Animal Science 81:E68-77; Bauman, D.; Mather, I.; Wall, R.; Lock, A. Major Advances Associated with the Biosynthesis of Milk [http://jds.fass.org/cgi/reprint/89/4/1235] Journal of Dairy Science 89: , Greger, M. Trait selection and welfare of genetically engineered animals in agriculture [http://www.animal- science.org/cgi/reprint/88/2/811] Journal of Animal Science 88: , Cummins, J., Ho M-G. Transgenic Animals for Food Not Proven Safe [http://www.animal- science.org/cgi/reprint/88/2/811]. Institute for Science and Society. Xenotrandplantation. Nature Biotechnology. Retrieved March 19, 2010 from VName=PQD. Rőszer, T., Pintye, É., & Benkő, I. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals. [http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=APCPCS &idtype=cvips&gifs=yes&ref=no] AIP Conference Proceedings, 1080: ; Cancer-resistant mouse discovered. EurekAlert. Retrieved March 19, 2010 from Aedes aegypti OX513A. Oxitec. Retrieved March 19, 2010 from strain/. Xenotransplantation How Bad Science and Big Business Put the World at Risk from Viral Pandemics. Institute of Science in Society. Retrieved March 22, 2010 from [http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/13/20/2713.full]. Genes and Development. 13: ; 1999 Amsterdam, A.; Burgess, S.; Golling, G.; Chen, W.; Sun, Z.; Townsend, K.; Farrington, S.; Haldi, M.; Hopkins, N. A large-scale insertional mutagenesis screen in zebrafish [http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/13/20/2713.full]. Genes and Development. 13: ; 1999 GM goat spins web based future. BBC News. Retrieved on March 22, 2010 from GM goat spins web based future. BBC News. Retrieved on March 22, 2010 from

18 Transgenic Posibilities

19 Dolion

20 Lemurat


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